Creatine for sports nutrition energy
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy source fueling muscle contraction movement and therefore the ability to replace it is crucial for performance. ATP production can occur through many processes, including cellular respiration, beta-oxidation, ketosis, lipid and protein catabolism. There are many ingredients on the market today, as well as some promising players, showing promise in supporting energy production with a view to potentially improving athletic performance.
Creatine has been one of the most popular nutritional aids for athletes to improve physical performance, endurance, and recovery. It is a substance that occurs naturally in muscle cells and shares many similarities with amino acids. Creatine can be produced by the body from the amino acids glycine and arginine. Up to 95% of the body’s creatine is stored in skeletal muscles, while small amounts are found in the brain and testes.1 About two-thirds of intramuscular creatine is stored as phosphocreatine (PCr) and the remaining third as free creatine.2
One of the ways the body’s ATP supply is replenished is through the use of PCr. When ATP is broken down, the remaining ADP needs a phosphate molecule. PCr provides the transfer of a high energy phosphate to ADP to create ATP. Therefore, more PCr means more high energy phosphates available for the creation of ATP and energy in the body. Creatine supplementation can increase the overall PCr available to create energy in the form of ATP.3 More ATP creation means more energy available to improve athletic performance. Studies have consistently shown that supplementation with creatine helps increase intramuscular creatine stores.1 This increase may explain the observed improvements in high-intensity exercise performance, which may lead to greater training adaptations.
Increases in intramuscular creatine have also shown promise for improving physical performance by improving recovery. One study indicated that the creatine load before exercise and the glycogen load may promote greater glycogen restoration than the carbohydrate load alone.4 Because replenishing glycogen is important for promoting recovery, supplementation with creatine can help athletes who deplete large amounts of glycogen during training.
Creatine supplementation can also reduce muscle damage and improve recovery after strenuous exercise.5 A group of researchers evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on strength recovery and muscle damage after strenuous exercise, with participants taking creatine supplementation displaying greater isokinetic strength and isometric extension strength during recovery. . In addition, participants displayed 84% lower plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels after two, three, four and seven days of recovery.
Another study evaluated the loading effects of creatine in experienced marathon runners and found a reduction in inflammatory markers and muscle pain.6 Using creatine to improve recovery can allow athletes and active users to train at higher intensities and faster. Such improved recovery in training can help promote better athletic performance.
Creatine monohydrate became popular for supplementation in the early 1990s. Since then, more than 1,000 studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness and safety. One of the most comprehensive studies looked at 52 different blood markers over 21 months and found no side effects.7 One of the most regularly reported side effects of creatine supplementation is weight gain due to increased water retention.8 However, this side effect does not appear to cause direct harm to the consumer.
Creatine can be consumed through animal products such as salmon, pork, beef, herring, chicken, lamb, and tuna. A normal diet containing about 1-2 g of creatine per day maintains muscle creatine stores at about 60-80% saturation.1 A group of researchers have suggested that the most effective way to increase creatine through supplementation is to ingest 5g of creatine monohydrate (0.3 / kg of body weight) four times a day for five to seven days.9 Consuming creatine with a carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein has been shown to promote greater creatine retention.ten
The “Energy ingredients with market buzzThe digital magazine contains the full version of this article, “Enhanced Athletic Performance with Energy-Driven Ingredients.” It includes more information on the dynamics of energy in the human body, as well as a comprehensive list of ingredients for energy-focused dietary supplement formulations.
Madison Dorn specializes in content creation and management, with a particular passion for the health / nutrition and fitness industries. In her spare time, she enjoys training and is a certified CrossFit Level One coach.
1 Kreider R et al. “Position Position of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: Safety and Effectiveness of Creatine Supplementation in Exercise, Sports, and Medicine.” Â»J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017; 14 (18).
2 Greenhaff P. “The Nutritional Biochemistry of Creatine.” J Nutr Biochem. 1994; 8 (11): 610-618.
3 Francaux M et al. “Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism.” Â»Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21 (2): 139-145.
4 Nelson A et al. âThe overcompensation of muscle glycogen is improved by prior creatine supplementation. Â»Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33 (7): 1096-1100.
5 Cooke M et al. âCreatine supplementation improves muscle strength recovery after eccentrically induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Â»J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009; 6:13.
6 Santos R et al. “The effect of creatine supplementation on markers of inflammation and muscle pain after a 30 km run.” ” Science of life. 2004; 75 (16): 1917-1924.
7 Kreider R et al. âLong-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of athlete health. Â»Mol Cell Biochem. 2003; 244 (1-2): 95-104.
8 Powers M et al. “Creatine supplementation increases total body water without altering fluid distribution.” J Athl Train. 2003; 38 (1): 44-50.
9 Harris R et al. “Elevation of Creatine in Resting and Exercising Muscles of Normal Subjects by Creatine Supplementation.” Â»Clin Sci. 1994; 83 (3): 367-374.
10 Greenwood M et al. âDifferences in Creatine Retention Between Three Nutritional Formulas of Oral Creatine Supplements. Â»J Exercise Physiol. 2003; 6 (2).