Phosphate Research – IMPHOS http://imphos.org/ Fri, 24 Jun 2022 08:48:28 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://imphos.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/IMPHOS-icon-150x150.jpg Phosphate Research – IMPHOS http://imphos.org/ 32 32 Massmutual Trust Co. FSB ADV increases its equity holding in The Mosaic Company (NYSE:MOS) https://imphos.org/massmutual-trust-co-fsb-adv-increases-its-equity-holding-in-the-mosaic-company-nysemos/ Fri, 24 Jun 2022 08:48:28 +0000 https://imphos.org/massmutual-trust-co-fsb-adv-increases-its-equity-holding-in-the-mosaic-company-nysemos/ Massmutual Trust Co. FSB ADV increased its stake in The Mosaic Company (NYSE: MOS – Get a rating) by 158.8% in the first quarter, HoldingsChannel.com reports. The institutional investor held 1,752 shares of the basic materials company after purchasing an additional 1,075 shares during the period. Massmutual Trust Co. FSB ADV’s holdings in Mosaic were […]]]>

Massmutual Trust Co. FSB ADV increased its stake in The Mosaic Company (NYSE: MOSGet a rating) by 158.8% in the first quarter, HoldingsChannel.com reports. The institutional investor held 1,752 shares of the basic materials company after purchasing an additional 1,075 shares during the period. Massmutual Trust Co. FSB ADV’s holdings in Mosaic were worth $117,000 when it last filed with the Securities & Exchange Commission.

A number of other institutional investors and hedge funds have also recently changed their holdings of MOS. Tudor Investment Corp Et Al purchased a new stake in shares of Mosaic during the third quarter worth approximately $1,448,000. MML Investors Services LLC increased its position in Mosaic shares by 44.3% during the third quarter. MML Investors Services LLC now owns 21,246 shares of the basic materials company worth $759,000 after buying an additional 6,526 shares last quarter. Wellington Management Group LLP increased its position in Mosaic shares by 0.4% during the third quarter. Wellington Management Group LLP now owns 560,320 shares of the basic materials company worth $20,015,000 after buying an additional 2,242 shares last quarter. Corient Capital Partners LLC purchased a new stake in shares of Mosaic during the third quarter at a value of approximately $227,000. Finally, FinTrust Capital Advisors LLC increased its position in Mosaic shares by 742.9% during the third quarter. FinTrust Capital Advisors LLC now owns 1,610 shares of the basic materials company worth $58,000 after buying 1,419 additional shares in the last quarter. Institutional investors and hedge funds hold 82.54% of the company’s shares.

In other news, Vice Chairman Walter F. Precourt III sold 9,647 shares of Mosaic in a trade on Monday, April 18. The stock was sold at an average price of $78.00, for a total value of $752,466.00. Following the transaction, the vice president now directly owns 75,000 shares of the company, valued at approximately $5,850,000. The sale was disclosed in a document filed with the Securities & Exchange Commission, available at this hyperlink. Also, CEO James Calvin O’Rourke sold 27,681 Mosaic shares in a trade on Tuesday, April 12. The shares were sold at an average price of $74.97, for a total value of $2,075,244.57. Following completion of the transaction, the CEO now owns 135,220 shares of the company, valued at $10,137,443.40. Disclosure of this sale can be found here. In the past ninety days, insiders have sold 89,039 shares of the company valued at $6,499,395. 0.57% of the shares are currently held by company insiders.

Several research companies have recently published reports on MOS. Royal Bank of Canada raised its target price on Mosaic from $80.00 to $85.00 and gave the stock an “outperform” rating in a Thursday, April 21 research report. Goldman Sachs Group upgraded Mosaic from a “neutral” rating to a “buy” rating and set a price target of $83.00 for the company in a Tuesday, March 15 report. Berenberg Bank downgraded Mosaic from a “buy” rating to a “hold” rating and set a price target of $50.00 for the company. in a research note on Thursday, February 24. Exane BNP Paribas downgraded Mosaic from an “outperform” rating to a “neutral” rating and set a price target of $82.00 for the company. in a research note from Wednesday, April 20. Finally, Morgan Stanley raised its price target on Mosaic from $40.00 to $60.00 and gave the company an “equal weight” rating in a Thursday, March 17 research note. One equity research analyst gave the stock a sell rating, seven gave the company a hold rating and eight gave the company a buy rating. According to data from MarketBeat.com, the company currently has an average rating of “Hold” and a consensus price target of $66.44.

Shares of NYSE MOS opened at $45.24 on Friday. The company has a quick ratio of 0.57, a current ratio of 1.23 and a debt ratio of 0.29. The company has a fifty-day simple moving average of $60.58 and a two-hundred-day simple moving average of $53.54. The company has a market capitalization of $16.38 billion, a PE ratio of 6.41, a price-to-earnings growth ratio of 0.53 and a beta of 1.57. The Mosaic Company has a 12-month low of $28.26 and a 12-month high of $79.28.

Mosaic (NYSE: MOSGet a rating) last released its results on Monday, May 2. The basic materials company reported earnings per share of $2.41 for the quarter, missing consensus analyst estimates of $2.44 per ($0.03). The company posted revenue of $3.92 billion for the quarter, versus a consensus estimate of $4.11 billion. Mosaic had a net margin of 18.99% and a return on equity of 23.80%. During the same period last year, the company earned earnings per share of $0.57. On average, research analysts expect The Mosaic Company to post earnings per share of 13.9 for the current year.

The company also recently announced a quarterly dividend, which was paid on Thursday, June 16. Shareholders of record on Thursday, June 2 received a dividend of $0.15 per share. The ex-dividend date was Wednesday, June 1. This is a positive change from Mosaic’s previous quarterly dividend of $0.11. This represents a dividend of $0.60 on an annualized basis and a yield of 1.33%. Mosaic’s payout ratio is 8.50%.

About Mosaic (Get a rating)

The Mosaic Company, through its subsidiaries, produces and markets concentrated phosphate and potash nutrients in North America and internationally. The Company operates through three segments: Phosphates, Potash and Mosaic Fertilizantes. It owns and operates mines, which produce concentrated phosphate nutrients, such as diammonium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate and ammonium phosphate products; and phosphate-based feed ingredients primarily under the Biofos and Nexfos brands, as well as a dual sulfate of potash and magnesia product under the K-Mag brand.

Read more

Want to see which other hedge funds hold MOS? Visit HoldingsChannel.com to get the latest 13F filings and insider trading for The Mosaic Company (NYSE: MOSGet a rating).

Institutional ownership by quarter for Mosaic (NYSE:MOS)



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New study to be conducted to determine the reason for the foam in the river https://imphos.org/new-study-to-be-conducted-to-determine-the-reason-for-the-foam-in-the-river/ Mon, 20 Jun 2022 13:35:30 +0000 https://imphos.org/new-study-to-be-conducted-to-determine-the-reason-for-the-foam-in-the-river/ Photo: PTI New Delhi: The Delhi government will conduct a study to identify pollution hotspots, including settlements and industrial areas, responsible for foaming in the Yamuna River, officials have announced. The study also aims to develop short-term and long-term action plans to minimize foaming in the river, they said. According to the project proposal, the […]]]>

Photo: PTI

New Delhi: The Delhi government will conduct a study to identify pollution hotspots, including settlements and industrial areas, responsible for foaming in the Yamuna River, officials have announced.

The study also aims to develop short-term and long-term action plans to minimize foaming in the river, they said.

According to the project proposal, the study by the Department of Environment will determine the sources and reasons for the foam in the river which reflects “water death and zero (level) of dissolved oxygen”.

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Foaming in some stretches of the river, such as near ITO and Okhla Dam, has become an annual occurrence in winter when temperatures are low and flow in the river less.

According to officials, the main reason for the formation of the toxic foam is the high phosphate content of the wastewater.

Detergents used in dyeing industries, dhobi ghats and households are the main sources of phosphate, they said.

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“Sewage from licensed settlements and high phosphate settlements reaches the river through untapped drains. When water falls from a height at a dam, the turbulence stirs up phosphorus compounds in the river, leading to foaming,” an official said.

Experts say foam problem will persist unless sewage treatment plants and common effluent treatment plants in Delhi are upgraded to meet new standards and all unauthorized settlements are connected to the grid of sewers.

Delhi generates about 770 MGD of sewage. The 34 sewage treatment plants spread over 20 sites across Delhi treat up to 570 MGD of sewage. The rest flows directly into the river.

Government data shows that only eight of Delhi’s 34 operational sewage treatment plants meet the prescribed standards for sewage (BOD and TSS below 10mg per litre). Together they can treat 150 million gallons of wastewater per day.

Sewer lines have been laid and put into service in 716 of the capital’s 1,799 unauthorized settlements so far, according to government data.

The study will identify the main drains responsible for the maximum pollution in the Yamuna River and the hotspots including settlements and industrial areas.

It will also assess and identify sources of moss in Najafgarh drain and additional drain as per the proposal.

The Najafgarh drain, 51 km long, is the largest in Delhi and alone contributes about 60% of the total sewage discharged from the capital into the Yamuna.

The study will also suggest possible alternatives to household products responsible for foaming.

In November last year, the city government was criticized for having to deploy boats in the polluted river to remove toxic foam from the banks of Kalindi Kunj during Chhath puja celebrations.

Authorities had even erected bamboo structures and sprayed water from tank trucks to dissipate the moss.

Critics had prompted Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal to announce a six-point action plan to clean up Delhi’s stretch of the river and form a Yamuna clean-up cell to improve coordination between agencies involved in cleaning up the river. heavily polluted river.

The chief minister had previously promised to clean up the river by 2025.

The 22 km stretch of the river between Wazirabad and Okhla, which is less than 2% of its 1,370 km from Yamunotri to Allahabad, accounts for about 80% of the river’s pollution load.

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Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Trends, Demand and Competition Analysis 2022-2030 – Instant Interview https://imphos.org/phosphorus-starter-fertilizer-market-trends-demand-and-competition-analysis-2022-2030-instant-interview/ Sat, 18 Jun 2022 12:52:33 +0000 https://imphos.org/phosphorus-starter-fertilizer-market-trends-demand-and-competition-analysis-2022-2030-instant-interview/ In-depth research specially compiled to provide the latest information on Global Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market 2022 Basic aspects. The report covers various industry estimates regarding market size, production, sales, utilization, compound annual growth rate, gross margin, price, and other factors. It is prepared using the best methodologies and methodologies in the industry for primary […]]]>

In-depth research specially compiled to provide the latest information on Global Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market 2022 Basic aspects. The report covers various industry estimates regarding market size, production, sales, utilization, compound annual growth rate, gross margin, price, and other factors. It is prepared using the best methodologies and methodologies in the industry for primary and secondary studies.

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Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Overview:

The research assesses historical and future time scales, accurate growth forecasts and forward estimates, and rapidly changing market forces. The study presents references for a comprehensive analysis of the global Phosphorus Starter Fertilizers market and provides important details on the major market players, with a broad overview of expansion opportunities and expansion strategies. The report is designed and presented in the form of tables, figures and other statistics to generate a better perception of the readers. Later in the report, information has been added about manufacturer/service provider information, major market players, as well as other major players.

The Global Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market is further divided into major regions such as:

  • North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Spain etc.)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and Southeast Asia, etc.)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Chile etc.)
  • Middle East and Africa (South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia, etc.)

Major Manufacturers Covered in Phosphorus Starter Fertilizers Market:

  • Agrium
  • United States
  • Yara International
  • CHS
  • Helena Chemical Company
  • Miller Seed Company
  • Conklin Company Partners
  • Nachurs Alpine Solution

Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market: Segmentation by Product Type

  • Ortho-phosphate
  • Polyphosphate

Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market: Segmentation by Application

  • In the groove
  • Fertigation
  • Foliar

Reasons to Buy Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Report:

  1. A systematic guide provides market insights and quantitative data for each market segment in this study.
  2. This research evaluates the demography, competitiveness, production policies and strategies of emerging countries.
  3. Looking for insights with emerging developments for Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer business and SWOT analysis.
  4. To provide a view of factors influencing the market for growth.
  5. Market growth factors and risks are presented.
  6. Market segmentation analysis including quantitative and qualitative research considering the impact of economic and non-economic aspects
  7. To provide more specific information about Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer market for different countries.

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The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 10 chapters:

  1. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Overview
  2. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Segment Analysis by Player
  3. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Segment Analysis by Type
  4. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Segment Analysis by Application
  5. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Segment Analysis by Sales Channel
  6. Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Market Segment Analysis by Region
  7. Profile of Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer Key Players
  8. Upstream and Downstream Analysis of Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer
  9. Development Trend of Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer (2022-2030)
  10. Annex

BROWSE THE FULL REPORT AND TABLE OF CONTENTS:https://courant.biz/report/world-phosphorus-starter-fertilizer-market-2/91949/

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Comprehensive Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Report 2022 https://imphos.org/comprehensive-potassium-dibenzyl-phosphate-market-report-2022/ Thu, 16 Jun 2022 05:35:26 +0000 https://imphos.org/comprehensive-potassium-dibenzyl-phosphate-market-report-2022/ potassium dibenzyl phosphate market Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Report Coverage: Key Growth Drivers and Challenges, Regional Segmentation and Outlook, Key Industry Trends and Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, COVID-19[feminine] Impact analysis and projected recovery, and market sizing and forecasting. A detailed report on Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market providing comprehensive information on the current market situation […]]]>

potassium dibenzyl phosphate market

Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Report Coverage: Key Growth Drivers and Challenges, Regional Segmentation and Outlook, Key Industry Trends and Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, COVID-19[feminine] Impact analysis and projected recovery, and market sizing and forecasting.

A detailed report on Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market providing comprehensive information on the current market situation and offering strong insights on the potential market size, volume, and dynamics over the forecast period, 2022-2028. The research study offers a comprehensive analysis of critical aspects of the Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market including competition, segmentation, geographical advancement, manufacturing cost analysis, and pricing structure. We provided CAGRvalue, volume, sales, production, revenue and other estimates for global and regional markets.

Major Key Players profiled in the report include: Eastman, Solvay, Chenke Biology and Technology and more…

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The regional study of the Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market explains how different regions and country-level markets are trending. Moreover, it gives a statistical representation of their progress over the forecast period. Our analysts used PPrimary and secondary research methodologies to compile the research study on the Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market.

Market Product Type Segmentation:
? 99%
? 99%

Market by Application Segmentation:
Pharmaceutical
Other

Competitive Landscape: Competitive landscape of a market explains competition in the Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate market by considering price, revenue, sales and market share by company, market concentration rate, competitive situations, trends and market shares of the main companies. Strategies incorporated by leading market vendors such as investment strategies, marketing strategies, and product development plans are also included in the report. The research incorporates data regarding the producer’s product line, major product applications, and product specifications.

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The report authors have analyzed the developing and developed regions considered for research and analysis of the global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate market. The regional analysis section of the report provides an in-depth study of different regional and country-level Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate industries to help players plan effective expansion strategies.

Regions Covered in Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market:
The Middle East and Africa (GCC countries and Egypt)
North America (United States, Mexico and Canada)
South America (Brazil, etc)
Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Australia)

Years considered to estimate the market size:
Historical year: 2015-2019
Year of reference : 2019
Estimated year: 2022
Forecast year: 2022-2028

Contents: Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Research Report 2022-2028

Chapter 1 Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Overview
Chapter 2 Global economic impact on the industry
chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers
Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region
Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions
Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application
Chapter 8 Manufacturing cost analysis
Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
Chapter 11 Analysis of market effect factors
Chapter 12 Global Potassium Dibenzyl Phosphate Market Forecast

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The report shares key information on:

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  • Market forecasts
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Small Commercial Vehicles Market Size and Forecast to 2029 https://imphos.org/small-commercial-vehicles-market-size-and-forecast-to-2029/ Mon, 13 Jun 2022 19:48:50 +0000 https://imphos.org/small-commercial-vehicles-market-size-and-forecast-to-2029/ Los Angeles, USA,-According to the report of the verified market report, the global small commercial vehicle market is expected to grow at a tremendous rate over the coming years. Titled “Global Small Commercial Vehicles Market Size and Forecast 2022-2029”, this report provides an in-depth look at the future of the global small commercial vehicles market. […]]]>

Los Angeles, USA,-According to the report of the verified market report, the global small commercial vehicle market is expected to grow at a tremendous rate over the coming years. Titled “Global Small Commercial Vehicles Market Size and Forecast 2022-2029”, this report provides an in-depth look at the future of the global small commercial vehicles market. Increased demand for smart technologies and increased construction of skyscrapers and tall commercial buildings are expected to contribute significantly to the growth of the global small commercial vehicle market.

A comprehensive study of the global Small Commercial Vehicles market is carried out by the analysts of this report, considering key factors such as drivers, challenges, recent trends, opportunities, developments and competitive landscape. This report provides a clear understanding of the current and future scenarios of the global Small Utility Vehicles industry. Research techniques such as pestle and Porter’s five forces analysis have been deployed by the researchers. It also provided accurate data on Small Commercial Vehicles production, capacity, price, cost, margin, and revenue, allowing the players to gain a clear understanding of the overall existing and future market conditions.

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Main Drivers and Obstacles

The high-impact factors and renderers have been studied in this report to help readers understand the overall development. Additionally, the report includes constraints and challenges that can be stumbling blocks in the players’ path. This will help users make informed, meticulous business-related decisions. The experts also focused on the upcoming trade prospects.

Sector outlook

The key segments including types and applications have been detailed in this report. Verified market report consultants have studied all segments and used historical data to provide market size. They also discussed the growth opportunities the segment could represent in the future. The study provides production and revenue data by type and application over the past period (2016-2021) and forecast period (2022-2029).

Key Players Covered in Small Commercial Vehicles Markets:

  • Anhui Jianghuai Automotive
  • Atul Auto Limited
  • Bajaj Auto Limited
  • Chongqing Changan Automotive
  • Dongfeng Motor Corporation
  • Ford Motor Company
  • general car company
  • Great Wall Motor Company Limited
  • Hyundai Motor Company
  • Isuzu Motors Ltd
  • Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
  • Mazda Motor Corporation
  • Nissan engine
  • Piaggio & C SpA
  • Renault S.A.
  • Shaanxi Automotive Group
  • Shenyang Brilliance Jinbei Automobile Co.
  • Tata Motors Limited
  • Toyota Motor Corporation
  • Volkswagen SA

Global Small Commercial Vehicle Market Segmentation:

Small Commercial Vehicles Market Split By Type:

  • Light buses
  • Vans
  • Microphones
  • light trucks
  • Others

Small Commercial Vehicles Market Split By Application:

The regional small commercial vehicle market analysis can be represented as follows:

This part of the report assesses key regional and country-level markets on the basis of market size by type and application, key players, and market forecast.

Based on geography, the global small utility vehicle market has been segmented as follows:

    • North America includes the United States, Canada and Mexico
    • Europe includes Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain
    • South America includes Colombia, Argentina, Nigeria and Chile
    • Asia Pacific includes Japan, China, Korea, India, Saudi Arabia and Southeast Asia

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Scope of the Small Commercial Vehicles Market Report

Report attribute Details
Market size available for years 2022 – 2030
Base year considered 2021
Historical data 2018 – 2021
Forecast period 2022 – 2030
Quantitative units Revenue in USD Million and CAGR from 2022 to 2030
Segments Covered Types, applications, end users, and more.
Report cover Revenue Forecast, Business Ranking, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors and Trends
Regional scope North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
Scope of customization Free report customization (equivalent to up to 8 analyst business days) with purchase. Added or changed country, region and segment scope.
Pricing and purchase options Take advantage of personalized purchasing options to meet your exact research needs. Explore purchase options

Industry Overview: The first section of the research study covers an overview of the global Small Commercial Vehicles market, market status and outlook, and product scope. Additionally, it provides highlights of major segments of the global Small Commercial Vehicles market i.e., region, type, and application segments.

Competitive analysis:This report sheds light on significant mergers and acquisitions, business expansion, product or service differences, market concentration, global Small Commercial Vehicles market competitive status and market size by player.

Company profiles and key data:This section covers the companies featuring leading players of the global Small Commercial Vehicles market based on revenue, products, activities, and other factors mentioned above.

Market Size by Type and Application:In addition to providing an in-depth analysis of the global Small Commercial Vehicles market size by type and application, this section provides research on major end users or consumers and potential applications.

North American market: This report depicts the changing size of the North America market by application and player.

European market: This section of the report shows how the size of the European market will evolve over the next few years.

Chinese market: It provides analysis of the Chinese market and its size for all years of the forecast period.

Rest of the Asia-Pacific market: The rest of the Asia-Pacific market is here analyzed in quite detail on the basis of applications and players.

Central and South America market: The report illustrates changes in Central and South America market size by players and applications.

Mea Market: This section shows how the Mea market size changes over the forecast period.

Market dynamics: This report covers the drivers, restraints, challenges, trends and opportunities of the global small commercial vehicles market. This section also includes Porter’s analysis of the five forces.

Findings and Conclusions:It provides strong recommendations for new and established players to secure a position of strength in the global small commercial vehicle market.

Methodology and data sources:This section includes author lists, disclaimers, research approaches, and data sources.

The main questions answered

What will be the size and average annual size of the global small commercial vehicle market in the next five years?

Which sectors will take the lead in the global small commercial vehicle market?

What is the average manufacturing cost?

What are the key business tactics adopted by the key players of the global Small Utility Vehicle Market?

Which region will gain the lion’s share in the global small commercial vehicle market?

Which companies will dominate the global small commercial vehicle market?

Research Methodology

Quality research uses reliable primary and secondary research sources to compile the reports. It also relies on the latest research techniques to prepare very detailed and precise research studies like this one. Use data triangulation, top-down and bottom-up approaches, and advanced research processes to deliver comprehensive, industry-leading market research reports.

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Effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on certain skin bacteria https://imphos.org/effects-of-short-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-on-certain-skin-bacteria/ Sat, 11 Jun 2022 14:48:41 +0000 https://imphos.org/effects-of-short-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-on-certain-skin-bacteria/ Experimental trial The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of scFOS (FOSbeauty®Beghin-Meiji) on the in vitro growth and competitive activity of bacterial strains representative of the human skin microbiota (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus). Bacterial strains Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC® 12228) and S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) were acquired from the American Type Culture […]]]>

Experimental trial

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of scFOS (FOSbeauty®Beghin-Meiji) on the in vitro growth and competitive activity of bacterial strains representative of the human skin microbiota (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus).

Bacterial strains

Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC® 12228) and S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) were acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), while C. acnes (CCUG 1794T) was acquired from the Cultural Collection of the University of Gothenburg (CCGU). The bacterial strains, supplied in freeze-dried form, were resuspended and inoculated into sterile tubes containing their respective selective medium [tryptic soy broth (TSB) for Staphylococcus strains, and TSB + 5% defibrinated sheep blood for C. acnes (BTSB)]and allowed to grow under optimal conditions for each bacterium (i.e. 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions for Staphylococcus strains, and 48 h at 37°C in anaerobiosis for C. acnes). The resulting bacterial suspension was stored at -80°C, following the freezing procedure indicated by cell banks. At the beginning of the experimental phase, a vial of each bacterium was taken at -80°C, partially thawed and a small aliquot taken with a sterile loop and streaked on agar plates based on selective medium. The streaked bacteria were then allowed to grow under optimal conditions for each strain and, once visible colonies had formed, a single isolated colony was collected and inoculated into selective media. To ensure that all experiments were performed on bacteria from the same selected colony after streaking, fresh inocula for each bacterial strain were generated from previous inocula. The bacterial concentration (CFU/mL) of each inoculum was determined in the mid-logarithmic growth phase by densitometry and CFU counting. The consistency between the different experiments was to prepare fresh inoculums before each experiment.

It should be noted that, although primarily known as an anaerobiotic bacterium, C. acnes is an aerotolerant anaerobe because it has enzymatic systems capable of detoxifying oxygen, allowing it to remain on the surface of the skin. As such, C. acnes can develop under conditions compatible with those found in the skin.

Preparation of scFOS

The solution composed of scFOS was prepared according to Rossi et al..200516. Briefly, depending on the experiment, the scFOS were weighed and dissolved at a concentration of 20% (w/v) either in TSB or in minimal medium. [0.9% NaCl in sterile water + 0.003% of tryptic phosphate broth (TPB)1]. After dissolution, the sterilization of the media was carried out by autoclave.

Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of scFOS

The ability of scFOS to inhibit the growth of bacterial strains (i.e., bacteriostatic activity) and/or exert bactericidal activity was assessed by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration ( MBC). MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of an agent preventing bacterial growth, while MBC was the lowest concentration of an antibacterial agent needed to kill them. 10×106 CFU/mL of each strain were exposed to increasing concentrations of scFOS [from 0 to 15% (w/v)] under aerobic conditions, experienced by skin bacteria in vivo. The impact of scFOS concentrations on bacterial growth was assessed at 0, 8 and 24 h and determined by colony count. When corrected for the dilution factor, bacterial growth was calculated as a fold change from the control (t = 0 h). Values ​​greater than 1 indicate bacterial growth, equal to 1 bacteriostatic activity (no bacterial growth), less than 1 bactericidal activity.

Impact of scFOS on bacterial growth kinetics

The ability of the tested strains to metabolize scFOS to support their growth was explored. After centrifugation and washing to remove growth medium, 10 × 106 CFU/mL were exposed to increasing concentrations of scFOS (0-15%) in minimal medium at 37°C for 24 h under shaking and aerobic conditions. After 8 h and 24 h of exposure, aliquots were taken and spread on selective agar plates. Colonies were then counted and corrected for the appropriate dilution factor. Bacterial growth was expressed as a fold-change relative to the bacterial load of the initial inoculum (t=0 h).

Competition between bacterial strains for scFOS

The bacterial ability to compete for scFOS as an energy source was assessed by comparing S. epidermidis versus C. acnes and S. epidermidis versus S. aureus, at increasing concentrations of scFOS (from 0 to 5%). After removal of residual growth medium, 10 × 106 CFU/mL were exposed to increasing concentrations of scFOS in minimal medium at 37°C for 48 h under shaking and aerobic conditions. At 0 h (initial bacterial load), 4, 8, 24 and 48 h, aliquots were taken and inoculated onto selective agar plates. For S. epidermidis versus S. aureus competition, inoculation was carried out on mannitol phenol red salt agar (MSARP), a differential medium capable of discriminating between the fermentation of mannitol (S. aureus) and fermenting without mannitol (S. epidermidis) strains.

For S. epidermidis versus C. acnes competition, a differential colony counting strategy was applied. Collected aliquots were streaked onto MSARP and blood agar plates, and C. acnes calculates as the difference between colonies grown on blood and MSARP agar.

When corrected for the appropriate dilution factor, bacterial growth was expressed as a fold change. The growth rate was expressed as the ratio between the factor of variation of S. epidermidis vs the fold change of C. acnes and between the change of fold of S. epidermidis vs the fold change of S. aureus.

Competition of bacterial strains for scFOS in an in vitro model of reconstructed human skin (RHE)

The impact of scFOS on bacterial growth was also evaluated on an in vitro model of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) (Epiderm™, MatTek), characterized by a stratified epithelium and endowed with a morpho-functional characteristic similar to the human epidermis. As such, this model can be effectively applied in bacterial strain adhesion, colonization, and competition experiments. Briefly, the same number of bacteria (10 × 106 CFU) for each strain was added to the RHE surface. For competition experiences, S. epidermidis versus C. acnes and S. epidermidis versus S. aureus comparisons were assessed. After adhesion for 3 h at 37°C in a controlled atmosphere incubator (5% CO2 and 85% relative humidity), RHEs were thoroughly rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to remove non-adherent bacteria. Adherent bacteria were then allowed to colonize the RHE for 18 h at 37°C, and colonization was calculated as follows: Colonization (factor change) = tX (CFU/mL)/t0 (CFU/mL).

whereX was the number of CFU/mL following the colonization process and t0 was the bacterial load (CFU/ml).

RHEs colonized by bacteria were exposed either to minimal medium only (negative control) or to increasing concentrations of scFOS. At 0, 8, and 24 h, scFOS-treated and non-scFOS-treated RHEs were rinsed with Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) and adhered bacteria were detached with a modified wash approach. The bacterial suspensions obtained were serially diluted and plated according to the specifications mentioned above. Bacterial growth was expressed as fold relative to the initial bacterial load. The growth rate was expressed as the ratio between the factor of variation of S. epidermidis against the change of fold C. acnes and between the change of fold of S. epidermidis against the change of fold S. aureus.

statistical analyzes

All statistical analyzes were performed with OriginLab software. To determine if statistically significant differences between treatments were present, a t-test analysis was performed. All data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of three independent experiments. Differences between groups were considered significant at P < 0.05.

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Rubbing and rinsing regimen important for removal of coronavirus from contact lens materials https://imphos.org/rubbing-and-rinsing-regimen-important-for-removal-of-coronavirus-from-contact-lens-materials/ Fri, 10 Jun 2022 02:18:00 +0000 https://imphos.org/rubbing-and-rinsing-regimen-important-for-removal-of-coronavirus-from-contact-lens-materials/ A new study by the University of Waterloo’s Department of Chemical Engineering and the Center for Ocular Research & Education (CORE) has determined that human coronaviruses can easily be cleared from contact lens surfaces, although diet is important depending on the type of lens care solution. Specifically, the scrubbing and rinsing steps are crucial for […]]]>
A new study by the University of Waterloo’s Department of Chemical Engineering and the Center for Ocular Research & Education (CORE) has determined that human coronaviruses can easily be cleared from contact lens surfaces, although diet is important depending on the type of lens care solution. Specifically, the scrubbing and rinsing steps are crucial for non-oxidizing systems, while products containing hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine remove contaminants by soaking alone.

The impact of a rub and rinse regime on the removal of human coronaviruses from contemporary contact lens materials (Nogueira C, et al) is in press from Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, the peer-reviewed journal of the British Contact Lens Association.

Although an ocular route has not been shown to be a primary route of entry for SARS-CoV-2, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness of the physical transmission of the virus through the hands and fingers. However, there is little data regarding the attachment of viruses, particularly coronaviruses, to lens materials and the ability of contemporary contact lens care products to inactivate them.

To assess attachment links, researchers selected two seasonal human coronaviruses, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 as surrogates for SARS-CoV-2, allowing less pathogenicity while being in the same virus family with similar structures. . Eight soft contact lens materials (including silicone hydrogels and hydrogels) and four RGP contact lens base materials (with and without hydrophilic coating) were contaminated and then soaked in phosphate-buffered saline solution. Although virus particles were recovered when the lenses were removed from passive saline soaking, no detectable virus remained when the lenses were subjected to single rinse, double rinse, or rub and rinse treatments. .

Since a simple saline rinse step alone removed both virus types from all materials, two representative soft lens materials (a hydrogel and a silicone hydrogel) were chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. of care for the elimination of HCoV-229E. The investigators selected four representative contact lens care products (two oxidizing and two non-oxidizing). Both oxidative disinfection systems reduced the number of infectious viral particles adhering to each material below the limit of quantification by dipping alone. Non-oxidative disinfection systems required a scrub and rinse step to do the same.

“Our results indicated that human coronaviruses bind quite loosely to contact lens materials, which should provide peace of mind to the eye care community and wearers, as long as proper care is provided,” said Lyndon Jones, PhD, DSc, FCOptom, a paper co-author and director of CORE. “Practitioners and manufacturers should continue to emphasize the importance of following disinfection regimens, particularly ensuring that a scrub and rise step occurs prior to overnight disinfection when using non-oxidizing systems. .”

The full article and additional data are available free of charge from Contact Lens and Anterior eye at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2022.101719

The study was funded by Ophtecs Corp.

Copyright © acrofan All rights reserved

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Arianne Phosphate: publishes its social and financial results for the first quarter of 2022 https://imphos.org/arianne-phosphate-publishes-its-social-and-financial-results-for-the-first-quarter-of-2022/ Tue, 07 Jun 2022 15:42:11 +0000 https://imphos.org/arianne-phosphate-publishes-its-social-and-financial-results-for-the-first-quarter-of-2022/ SAGUENAY, QUEBEC – (May 25, 2022) – Arianne Phosphate (the “Company” or “Arianne”) (TSX VENTURE: DAN; OTC: DRRSF; FRANKFURT: JE9N)a development-stage phosphate mining company advancing its Lac à Paul project in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, announced its financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2022. All amounts are in Canadian dollars, unless otherwise […]]]>

SAGUENAY, QUEBEC – (May 25, 2022) – Arianne Phosphate (the “Company” or “Arianne”) (TSX VENTURE: DAN; OTC: DRRSF; FRANKFURT: JE9N)a development-stage phosphate mining company advancing its Lac à Paul project in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, announced its financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2022. All amounts are in Canadian dollars, unless otherwise specified. .

“The year has started well,” said Brian Ostroff, president of Arianne Phosphate. “Arianne has successfully gained traction in the agriculture and battery markets and, with our most recent results demonstrating our ability to optimize our concentrate for these specific markets, has continued to draw attention to our company. Additionally, supply disruptions caused by recent geopolitical events have reignited concerns about “security of supply” and underscored the importance of access to quality material from a quality jurisdiction.”

Financial and operational highlights

  • In February 2022, Arianne launched a research program in collaboration with the Environment and Biotechnology Research Group of Cégep Rivière-de-Loup aimed at developing a new breed of fertilizer from organic waste and the concentrate of Arianne’s high-purity, low-contaminant phosphate. .

  • On April 1, 2022, the Company issued 4,166,096 common shares at a price of $0.512 per share, in lieu of cash, as an annual interest payment to Mercury Financing Corp. as of March 31, 2022. The Company has chosen to pay in common shares, these issued securities being subject to a lock-up period ending on August 2, 2022.

  • In April 2022, Arianne entered into a collaboration with Northern Nutrients of Saskatchewan, Canada to advance the use of its high purity phosphate concentrate in alternatively derived fertilizers. The benefits of this work would be the ability to integrate the Company’s phosphate concentrate directly into fertilizers without having to first transform it by acidulation.

  • In May 2022, the Company announced that it had successfully tested an improved process that will allow it to optimize its high purity phosphate concentrate for specific end markets. In collaboration with Corem, Arianne has produced both low MER (minor element ratio) and higher MER phosphate concentrate using high intensity magnetic separation. The results demonstrated that Arianne’s phosphate concentrate can be further optimized to meet target markets with a simple addition to the process flow sheet. The low MER material is attractive to those seeking specialty phosphate applications, such as the high purity acid used in lithium-iron-phosphate (“LFP”) batteries, while the higher MER concentrate would be attractive for direct application fertilizers, as it would be higher in beneficial micronutrients like iron.

Financial Summary

Arianne is a development-stage business and as such did not generate positive revenue or cash flow in the first quarter of 2022. During the first quarter ended March 31, 2022, the Company incurred net losses of $1.3 million (M) for the quarter period. For the same period in 2021, the net loss incurred was $4.4 million for the three-month period. The lower loss in 2022 is explained by borrowing costs which were higher in 2021 due to the quota share conversion of the loans which created a loss on conversion and the extension of the line of credit to the Q1 2021. These costs are non-cash.

Arianne’s management report and condensed interim consolidated financial statements for the three-month period ended March 31, 2022 are available on the Company’s website and on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

About Arianne Phosphate:

Arianne Phosphate (“Arianne Phosphate Inc.”) (www.arianne-inc.com) is developing the Lac à Paul phosphate deposits located approximately 200 km north of the Saguenay/Lac Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. These deposits will produce a high quality igneous apatite concentrate grading 39% P2O5 with little or no contaminants (feasibility study published in 2013). The Company has 189,969,848 shares outstanding.

QualifiedThe person

Raphael Gaudreault, P.Eng., NI 43-101 Qualified Person, has approved this release. Mr. Gaudreault is also the Company’s Chief Operating Officer.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

– 30 –

Contact information:

Source: Raphaël Gaudreault, Chief Operating Officer Tel. : 418-590-1318 raphael.gaudreault@arianne-inc.com

Information: Brian Ostroff, President Tel. : 514-908-4202 brian.ostroff@arianne-inc.com

Follow Ariane on:

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ariannephosphate
Twitter: http://twitter.com/arianne_dan
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/user/ArianneResources
Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/arianneresources
Resource Investing News: http://resourceinvestingnews.com/?s=Arianne

Cautions Regarding Forward-Looking Information

This press release contains “forward-looking statements” and “forward-looking information” within the meaning of applicable securities regulations in Canada and the United States (collectively, “forward-looking information”). Forward-looking information includes, but is not limited to, the expected quality and production of apatite concentrate at the Lac à Paul project. Often, but not always, forward-looking information can be identified by the use of words such as “plans”, “expects”, “is planned”, “budget”, “planned”, “estimates”, forecasts, “intends”, “plans” or “believes”, or negative forms thereof or variations of such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results “could”, “could”, “might “, “could” or “will” be taken, occur or be achieved. Forward-looking information is subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from those expressed or implied. by such forward-looking information, including, but not limited to: volatile stock prices; risks related to changes in commodity prices; sources and cost of electrical installations; estimation of initial and maintenance capital requirements; estimating labor and operating costs; general world markets and economic conditions; the risk associated with the exploration, development and exploitation of mineral deposits; estimation of mineral reserves and resources; risks associated with uninsurable risks arising during exploration, development and production; risks associated with currency fluctuations; environmental risks; the competition encountered to recruit experienced personnel; access to adequate infrastructure to support mining, processing, development and exploration activities; risks associated with changes to the mining regulatory regime governing the Company; completion of the environmental assessment process; risks relating to regulatory and approval delays; risks related to potential conflicts of interest; dependence on key personnel; financing, capitalization and liquidity risks, including the risk that the financing necessary to fund continued exploration and development activities at the Lac à Paul project may not be available on satisfactory terms, if at all; the risk of potential dilution by the issuance of ordinary shares; the risk of litigation. Forward-looking information is based on assumptions that management believes to be reasonable at the time such statements are made, including, but not limited to, continued exploration activities, the absence of material adverse change in the prices of raw materials, exploration and development plans proceeding in accordance with plans and such plans achieve their stated expected results, the receipt of required regulatory approval and the other assumptions and factors set forth herein. Although the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking information, there may be other factors that cause results not to be those anticipated, estimated or expected. There can be no assurance that such forward-looking information will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking information. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information. Forward-looking information is made as of the date of this press release, and the Company does not undertake to update such forward-looking information except in accordance with applicable securities laws.

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Ministry signs agreements to explore copper in Dana and gold in southern Jordan https://imphos.org/ministry-signs-agreements-to-explore-copper-in-dana-and-gold-in-southern-jordan/ Mon, 06 Jun 2022 04:17:38 +0000 https://imphos.org/ministry-signs-agreements-to-explore-copper-in-dana-and-gold-in-southern-jordan/ AMMAN – The Ministry of Energy on Sunday signed two memorandums of understanding, the first with the Jordanian integrated company to explore copper in the Dana region, and the second with the Turkish “Solvest Trade and Industry Limited Company” to explore gold to Abu Khashiba. southern region of Jordan. Energy Minister Saleh Kharabsheh signed the […]]]>

AMMAN – The Ministry of Energy on Sunday signed two memorandums of understanding, the first with the Jordanian integrated company to explore copper in the Dana region, and the second with the Turkish “Solvest Trade and Industry Limited Company” to explore gold to Abu Khashiba. southern region of Jordan.

Energy Minister Saleh Kharabsheh signed the memoranda with Deputy Chairman of the Board Moin Qadada, representing the Jordanian integrated company and Solvest chief Andrei Borisov, representing the Turkish company.

In a press release after the ceremony, Kharabsheh said the Memorandum of Jordanian Integrated Society will last for 16 months.

He pointed out that the memorandum stipulates the exploration and extraction of copper in an area of ​​78 square kilometers, stressing that the mining area is located away from areas of great environmental concern in the reserve.

During the 16-month period, the company will carry out an exploratory study followed by an economic feasibility study.

Regarding the memorandum signed with the Turkish company, Kharabsheh pointed out that the memorandum is the second of its kind binding the ministry and Solvest, which stipulates the exploration and extraction of gold in the Abu Khashiba Valley, as part of the ministry’s efforts to strengthen Jordanian mining. sector.

Solvest will operate in an area of ​​155 square kilometers. The company stressed the importance of the memorandum in expanding the use of the Kingdom’s natural resources to boost the national economy and create employment opportunities for local communities.

Minister Kharabsheh added that the ministry had previously signed a memorandum of understanding with Solvest to explore for copper in the Abu Khashiba area, having rehabilitated it and obtained the appropriate approvals, noting that the company has now committed to adhere to the work schedule specified in the Memorandum of Understanding. .

Chairman of the Jordanian Integrated Society, Ziad Manaseer, expressed the company’s willingness to cooperate with the ministry to support the national economy and help reduce unemployment rates.

He added that given the early results of copper deposits in the region, this project puts the Kingdom on the map of global mining investments, adding that Jordan’s fertile environment and natural reserves are an important part of its progress. .

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources has recently signed a number of memorandums of understanding for the exploration of mineral resources, focusing on manufacturing industries, strengthening the national economy, increasing opportunities for employment and improving the standard of living of local communities.

For example, Kharabsheh launched a phosphate ore exploration project in the Al Ruwaished region in December 2021, and in January 2022 the ministry signed a memorandum of understanding to explore for rare earth elements and minerals. strategic locations in the Dbeidib region in southern Jordan.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources and Turkey’s Solvest Trade and Industry Limited Company signed a Memorandum of Understanding last April to explore for copper ore and associated minerals in the southern region of Ghor Fifa and Abu Khashiba Valley.

The ministry has also launched a platform to facilitate investment procedures related to mineral resources within the second batch of government accelerators.

©Copyright The Jordan Times. All rights reserved. Provided by SyndiGate Media Inc. (Syndigate.info).

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Label-free multiplex electrochemical immunosensor for early diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders https://imphos.org/label-free-multiplex-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-early-diagnosis-of-lysosomal-storage-disorders/ Sat, 04 Jun 2022 09:37:30 +0000 https://imphos.org/label-free-multiplex-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-early-diagnosis-of-lysosomal-storage-disorders/ Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD) are a group of inherited genetic diseases that cause the accumulation of lipids in tissues and cells1resulting from mutations in genes encoding intralysosomal enzymes2,3,4. All LSDs share the same characteristic that they cause accumulation of naturally degraded substrates in lysosomes5they cause accumulation of substrates leading to cell destruction and dysfunction, in […]]]>

Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD) are a group of inherited genetic diseases that cause the accumulation of lipids in tissues and cells1resulting from mutations in genes encoding intralysosomal enzymes2,3,4. All LSDs share the same characteristic that they cause accumulation of naturally degraded substrates in lysosomes5they cause accumulation of substrates leading to cell destruction and dysfunction, in turn, causing tissue dysfunction2.6. The severity of LSD depends on the nature and amount of accumulated substrate6. LSD patients appear normal at birth, but develop symptoms early in childhoodseven. Neurological symptoms include brainstem dysfunction and seizures, and peripheral symptoms include kidney and heart damage, muscle atrophy, ophthalmic disease, enlarged liver and spleen, and irregular bone development.8. However, treatment is available for most LSD if discovered early in childhood, such as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, and gene therapy. Therefore, early detection of LSD is crucial.6.7.

Pompe disease (type II glycogen storage disease) is an SIDS caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). GAA is needed to break down glycogen into glucose, so its deficiency leads to accumulation of glycogen in organelles9.10. As a pump treatment, acid α-glucosidase enzyme is given to patients as ERT, it breaks down glycogen into glucose to reduce its accumulation in cells, however, treatment with acid α-glucosidase should be started as early as possible in infants11. Another LSD is Krabbe’s disease (KD) or globoid cell leukodystrophy (GCL), is a neurological condition caused by galactocerebrosidase (GALC) deficiency. The GALC enzyme is essential for the degradation of galactosylceramide in the white matter of the cerebrospinal nervous system. Krabbe becomes clinically apparent within 6 months of birth and ends in death within 24 months if untreated12.13. Gaucher disease is the most common sphingolipidosis, it results from β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) deficiency14it causes the accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages15and it is classified into three main subtypes based on the presence or absence of neurological involvement16. Of all LSDs, Pompe’s, Gaucher’s and Krabbe’s diseases are the most common and have severe symptoms that end in death. However, these diseases have treatments available and are detectable in their childhood stage. Therefore, if detected and diagnosed early in the patient’s infantile phase, treatments can be administered accordingly.

It has been proven that the initial identification of patients with LSD can be achieved by immunoquantification of enzymes and lysosomal proteins, since mutations lead not only to a deficiency in enzyme activity, but also to a decrease in the amount of protein.seven. Deficient patients have protein levels below the threshold concentration which is approximately 3 to 100 ng/ml in healthy individuals17. Methods previously used for the quantification of some LSD-related proteins have been reported, such as fluorescence, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassays like enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).2.7. Nevertheless, these methods are known to be time-consuming and time-consuming to analyze, expensive, require specialist laboratories, and require a large volume of samples, making them not ideal for point-of-care (POCT) testing.18. POCT allows rapid access to results thus providing faster monitoring, choice of treatment, prognosis and diagnosis of diseases, resulting in better decision making which is often vital to patient health. To perform POCT in the most efficient way, more cost-effective and faster methods are being developed.19.

To speed up and facilitate clinical diagnosis and POCT, multiple analysis of different biomarkers yields faster and more accurate results. Thus, multiplexed analysis using a single analytical device holds great promise in upgrading and simplifying diagnostic procedures, as it provides more data, faster. Multiplexed detection offers many advantages such as using less sample volume, less average analysis time, more statistically reliable conclusions and more informative detection results20.

Biosensors are evolving to become an interesting, cheaper, simpler and more sensitive alternative to conventional detection methods for diagnostic purposes. Specifically, electrochemical immunosensors are the focus of much research in the field of biomedical research and diagnostics, due to their high sensitivity, rapid response, minimization of sample volume used, ability to be miniaturized and their multiplexing capacity. Electrodeposition of electrochemical immunosensors with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by chronoamperometry, improves its performance via improved electron transfer rate and catalytic activity of the sensor21. This is done by reducing HAuCl4 using potassium nitrate. AuNPs increase surface area allowing more antibodies to immobilize on the surface of the transducer, resulting in significantly higher signal and sensitivity. Electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles demonstrated a three-fold increase in electroactive area, resulting in increased functional density of biomolecules as well as improved electron exchange and sensitivity22,23,24.

In this work, we report a new multiplexed electrochemical immunosensor developed for the quantification and simultaneous detection of GAA, GBA and GALC. Disposable carbon microarray chips electrodeposited with AuNPs were used due to their high conductivity and large surface area which allows immobilization of more antibodies. Antibodies for GAA, GBA and GALC were immobilized on the sensor for protein detection. This multiplexed sensor could be used in crucial early diagnosis of LSD in newborns to deliver the right treatment.

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