Phosphate Institute – IMPHOS http://imphos.org/ Tue, 21 Jun 2022 20:37:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://imphos.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/IMPHOS-icon-150x150.jpg Phosphate Institute – IMPHOS http://imphos.org/ 32 32 COVID vaccination in MS patients treated with DMT: new data https://imphos.org/covid-vaccination-in-ms-patients-treated-with-dmt-new-data/ Tue, 21 Jun 2022 20:37:32 +0000 https://imphos.org/covid-vaccination-in-ms-patients-treated-with-dmt-new-data/ NATIONAL HARBOUR, Maryland ― The latest updates on the vaccine response to COVID-19 in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are treated with disease-modifying therapy (DMT) show that if patients do contract the virus, cases are mild and serious infections are rare. However, the vaccine antibody response remains weaker with anti-CD20 therapies. One of many […]]]>

NATIONAL HARBOUR, Maryland ― The latest updates on the vaccine response to COVID-19 in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are treated with disease-modifying therapy (DMT) show that if patients do contract the virus, cases are mild and serious infections are rare.

However, the vaccine antibody response remains weaker with anti-CD20 therapies.

One of many late-breaking studies on these questions that were presented at the 2022 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC) included over 100 MS patients who were treated with a variety of DMTs. .

The results showed that the antibody response rate was only 55% in people treated with anti-CD20 therapies, compared to 83% for those treated with other DMTs, including sphingosine receptor modulators. 1-phosphate (S1P).

Consistent with what has been observed in other studies, “Vaccine antibody responses were slightly lower in B-cell depleted patients than with other therapies,” said lead author Rahul Dave, MD, director of the INOVA MS and Neuroimmunology Center, Inova Neurosciences Institute, University of Virginia College of Medicine, Fairfax, said Medscape Medical News.

Vaccine response

The researchers sought to assess detailed vaccine responses in 134 MS patients. Serum COVID antibody measurements were performed approximately 3 weeks to 4 months post-vaccination – and primarily after the initial vaccination.

The antibody response rate was significantly lower with anti-CD20 treatments (55%) than with all other DMTs examined (83%), including S1Ps, immunomodulators, immunosuppressive drugs, interferon B, anti-CD 52 and natalizumab (P < .01).

The highest prevalence of antibody response was seen in those taking immunomodulators; responses occurred in 91% of patients taking teriflunomide and among 93% of those taking fumarates.

Among those treated with anti-CD20 therapy, antibody responses were correlated with higher baseline immunoglobin levels (P = 0.01) and shorter treatment times.

“We found that longer total treatment duration and lower immunoglobulin levels tended to correlate with decreased immune responses,” Dave said.

“It is interesting to note that the delay between vaccination and the administration of [anti-CD20 drug] ocrelizumab did not appear to impact antibody responses,” Dave noted. He added that this is contrary to some previous studies that showed benefits if vaccination could be completed before starting ocrelizumab.

Sixteen participants tested positive for COVID-PCR in the previous 12 months. Although most infections were described as mild and self-limiting, four of the patients received outpatient treatment with monoclonal antibodies and one required hospitalization due to COVID.

“I think it is remarkable and reassuring that, overall, our patients had mild outcomes. This is consistent with how vaccines “work” and is true even in patients on high-efficacy immunosuppressants that partially abrogate antibody responses,” Dave said.

He added that he reassures patients who need high-efficacy therapies “that they should be using them.”

That being said, like in the general population, even vaccinated patients can contract COVID, he noted. “You can be sick and feel bad, but in general the number of hospitalizations is down from 2 years ago. We are seeing the same trends in MS patients, including lymphocyte-depleted patients B,” he added.

“To get to the question of whether patients lacking B cells behave exactly the same way as the general population, or even [with] other DMTs, we will need large multicenter prospective datasets,” Dave said.

Favorable Findings

Two other late-breaking posters at the meeting provided updates regarding antibody responses in patients receiving S1Ps. It was feared that S1Ps would blunt antibody responses to COVID vaccinations.

The concern is their unique mechanisms of circulating lymphocyte sequestration, in particular the ancient non-selective modulator of S1P receptors. fingolimodsaid the author of one of the studies, Daniel Kantor, MD, president emeritus of the Florida Society of Neurology and founding president of the Medical Partnership 4 MS+.

“It seems that the problems with fingolimod could be related to the level of white blood cell sequestration, [which is] higher in fingolimod than newer S1P receptor modulators, and/or the outcome of S1P4 receptor modulation, which is not seen with newer selective drugs,” Kantor said. Medscape Medical News.

In a prospective observational trial of patients with RMS, among 30 participants treated with ozanimod, the mean increase in IgG antibody titer 4 weeks after either of the two available mRNA vaccines was 232.73 AU/mL, versus a mean increase of 526.59 AU/mL in 30 patients not treated with ozanimod/DMT.

To date, only three patients in the study were taking ocrelizumab; for these patients, the mean increase in IgG titers was 0.633.

Despite the lower antibody titers in the ozanimod-treated patients, which Kantor says are generally considered protective, all but one patient tested positive on T-Detect, indicating vaccine protection.

“In this study, RMS patients treated with ozanimod had an antibody and T-cell response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines,” he reported. “This trial is ongoing, with 48 weeks of follow-up planned for December 2022.”

ponesimod results

In the other late-breaking study related to the S1P modulator, Janssen Research and Development reported on the antibody responses of patients treated with the S1P drug ponesimod in the phase 2 study AC-058B202.

The median exposure to ponesimod at the time of vaccination was 10.7 years (range: 9.8 to 11.8 years). There were 134 patients in the study. Of these, pre-vaccination and post-vaccination blood samples from 49 patients were tested for peak antibody concentrations.

Of these participants, 40 (81.6%) met the definition of response to COVID-19 vaccination, defined as seroconversion in the event of a negative pre-vaccination antibody test or a fourfold increase in antibody concentration in case of positive pre-vaccination antibody result.

Of the 38 antibody-negative participants, 33 (86.8%) achieved seroconversion after vaccination.

Twenty participants reported having had COVID before vaccination, while 17 had COVID after vaccination.

None of the cases were serious, severe or fatal, and none resulted in permanent discontinuation of treatment.

“In patients with RMS on ponesimod, the majority (>80%) appear to develop a measurable SARS-CoV-2 humoral response following vaccination against COVID-19,” the authors, led by Janice Wong, of Janssen Research and Development, LLC, write.

“Further investigations into the efficacy and safety of vaccination against COVID-19 in MS patients on ponesimod are warranted,” they add.

In a latest Genentech study, of 4,848 MS patients who were fully vaccinated during Delta and Omicron waves, 1.3% had a COVID-related hospitalization. Additionally, the rate of serious SARS-CoV-2 infections was very low (0.6%); there were less than 10 infections in each DMT subgroup. These patients included 585 (17%) treated with ocrelizumab, 238 (7%) treated with S1P receptor modulators, 33 (1%) treated with interferons, 1004 (29%) treated with other DMTs, and 1574 (46% ) for which no DMT has been recorded.

“We can conclude from this study that the characteristics of people with MS with more severe COVID-19 outcomes resemble those seen in the general population,” such as those who are older or have higher comorbidity rates, Preeti Bajaj, HEOR Team Leader, Neurosciences at Genentech, says Medscape Medical News.

“We believe [ocrelizumab] Treatment decisions should be made between a patient and their treating neurologist or other healthcare professional based on a patient-specific benefit-risk assessment,” Bajaj said.

Concerns remain

Commenting for Medscape Medical News, Bruce AC Cree, MD, PhD, professor of clinical neurology and director of clinical research at the University of California, San Francisco, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, described the overall anti-CD20 vaccine efficacy data as ” daunting” and said he was adjusting his own recommendations for these patients.

“Repeat vaccinations do not appear to stimulate humoral responses in B-cell depleted patients,” said Cree, who was not involved in the research.

In my personal practice, I have suspended dosing in my patients to allow B-cell reconstitution followed by revaccination,” he added.

Regarding S1P drugs, he noted that apart from fingolimod, “the frequency of antibody response appears to be better than initial reports. However, index values ​​are low and may not be protective.”

Overall, the take-home message for MS patients taking DMT should be, “all patients treated with S1P modulators or anti-C20 antibodies should be vaccinated and boosted,” Cree said.

“In some cases, temporarily interrupting treatment could be useful to help develop robust responses to vaccinations,” he added.

Dave reported no financial relationship regarding the poster, but is a paid speaker/consultant for Novartis, BMS, EMD Serono, Biogen, Alexion, Genentech, Horizon and Sanofi for their MS & NMO therapies. Kantor’s research was supported by a grant from BMS; he is a consultant for Biogen, BMS and Janssen. Cree has indicated that he is an unpaid ($0) consultant for BMS, the maker of ozanimod.

2022 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC): Late-Breaking Abstracts. Presented June 2, 2022.

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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis provides insight into the water stress response of corn seedlings https://imphos.org/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insight-into-the-water-stress-response-of-corn-seedlings/ Thu, 09 Jun 2022 14:41:18 +0000 https://imphos.org/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insight-into-the-water-stress-response-of-corn-seedlings/ Primary data analysis and protein identification First, we tested the repeatability of two samples at the same time, demonstrating that our results have good repeatability and confirming the credibility of the data (Fig. 1A). Integrating all the data, we identified a total of 3063 proteins from the 12 samples and annotated them using different databases. […]]]>

Primary data analysis and protein identification

First, we tested the repeatability of two samples at the same time, demonstrating that our results have good repeatability and confirming the credibility of the data (Fig. 1A). Integrating all the data, we identified a total of 3063 proteins from the 12 samples and annotated them using different databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a database resource for understanding the high-level functions and utilities of the biological system. The Clusters of Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COG) database contains the phylogenetic classification of proteins encoded in complete genomes. The Gene Ontology (GO) database is the largest source of information on gene functions. The InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and sites (Fig. 1B). We then analyzed the function of these proteins using KEGG annotation, revealing that these identified proteins are involved in various metabolic processes. The most enriched pathways were carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and mRNA translation (Fig. 1C). These data reveal metabolic changes in plant cells in response to water-limited growing conditions. Considering the important role of transcription factors in regulating various vital activities, we categorized the transcription factors detected, revealing that the most abundant categories included bHLH, MYB, NAC, and G2-like proteins (Fig. .1D).

Figure 1

Basic iTRAQ output details. (A) Scatter plots showing the correlation between two replicates for different conditions. (B) Venn diagrams of peptides identified using different annotation techniques. (VS) The KEGG annotation for the identified peptides. (D) Frequency of each class of transcription factors in the identified peptides.

Analysis of drought-sensitive DAPs after a 3-day drought

To explore factors with important effects on drought response, we first analyzed samples after 3 days of drought treatment. We identified a total of 362 DAPs between control and experimental plants subjected to a 3-day drought, including 214 upregulated proteins and 148 downregulated proteins (Fig. 2A, Tables S1 and S2). Gene ontology (GO) annotations were used to assign and analyze pathway enrichment of DAPs, which were classified into 35 GO terms (Fig. 2B). The most common terms in cell components are organelles and cell parts. The most enriched terms in the biological processes category are metabolic processes, cellular processes, responses to stimuli, and biological regulation, while the most enriched terms in the molecular functions category are catalytic activity and binding. . (Fig. 2B). Moreover, further analysis of the enriched GO terms (p-value < 0.05) revealed that many up-regulated proteins are involved in responses to stimuli and stress (Fig. 2C). Meanwhile, there are enriched GO terms related to stimuli responses and pigment metabolism for down-regulated proteins, which may suggest that these proteins are involved in photosynthesis (Figure S1A).

Figure 2
Figure 2

DAPs involved in drought tolerance pathways. (A) Map of the volcano showing the DAPs identified following the treatment of the drought in 3 days. (B) GO annotation for all DAPs. (VS) GO enrichment analysis of upregulated proteins after 3-day dryness.

Flavonoids are a large class of low-weight phenols, which play vital roles in various biochemical and physiological processes in plants, such as UV protection, defense against pathogens and water stress.17.18. We showed that some of the DAPs (eg, shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase) are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways (Figure S1B). These data suggest that drought stimuli may affect flavonoid biosynthesis and the oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

Comparison of DAP between plants after 3 days and 6 days of drought

We further compared the DAPs of plants subjected to 3- and 6-day droughts to the corresponding control, respectively. A total of 20 and 41 DAPs were generally downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in plants subjected to 3- and 6-day droughts (Fig. 3A,B and Table S3). These overlapping DAPs may therefore be important for drought response, so we further analyzed the function of the overlapping proteins. Some of these up-regulated DAPs have been annotated as metabolite, chaperone, and transferase interconverting enzymes (Fig. 3C). Additionally, some of the down-regulated DAPs are annotated as transporter, scaffold protein, and DNA metabolism proteins (Figure S1C).

picture 3
picture 3

Comparison of DAP after a drought of 3 days and 6 days. (A) Venn diagram illustrating the overlap between down-regulated proteins in plants subjected to 3-d and 6-d drought treatments. (B) Venn diagram illustrating the overlap between upregulated proteins in plants subjected to 3-d and 6-d drought treatments. (VS) Categorization of the 41 upregulated proteins in 3-d and 6-d dryness treatments.

Drought-sensitive proteins such as dehydrins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) are produced to protect the intracellular metabolic machinery. COR410 dehydrin localizes to the plasma membrane and accumulates under water stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum)19. Here we found that COR410 was up-regulated in plants after 3 days of drought, suggesting that it also participates in the drought response in maize. HSPs participate in various stress responses, not just heat stress. Six of the 41 HSP20 family members were found to be upregulated in the dried plants in the present study, indicating that the HSP20 family may play a crucial role in the water stress response in maize. The abundance of proteins related to biogenesis and cell wall degradation, such as glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase 7, was also significantly increased in dried samples. Some of the other DAPs were also involved in this metabolic pathway, such as the X2 isoform of glutamate decarboxylase and the protein GDP-fucose O-fucosyltransferase. Some DAPs have a currently unknown function and may represent novel regulatory targets for further drought research.

DAP analysis after rehydration

To further explore whether DAPs returned to normal levels when water supply returned, we analyzed protein levels of samples rehydrated for 1 day after a 6-day drought compared to control samples. Corn was still alive after 6 days of drought treatment, but some leaves appeared to be wilted. We found a total of 231 DAPs, of which 127 were upregulated and 104 were downregulated (Fig. 4A). Some of the DAPs under drought treatment returned to the same abundance as the control when water supply was restored (Fig. 4B, Table S5), suggesting that the expression of these proteins is most sensitive to stimulation by drought. GO analyzed indicated that some of these DAPs belong to binding proteins and have ATP-dependent activity, suggested that these proteins might participate in signal transduction (Fig. 4C and D). On the other hand, some of the DAPs have not returned to their normal state. levels after the water supply resumes.

Figure 4
number 4

The change in drought response proteins after rewatering. (A) Map of the volcano showing the DAPs identified following the rehydration treatment. (B) Scatter plots showing change in abundance of DAPs from drought treatments after rewatering. Red indicates up-regulation after re-watering, while blue represents down-regulation. The circle represents an upregulated protein in dried plants, while a triangle represents a downregulated protein. (VS) GO annotation for recovery proteins. (D) Functional analysis of salvage proteins.

Pooled analysis of DAP change trend during drought and rewatering

We performed cluster analysis on the trend of change of DAPs in different samples and found that some proteins were up-regulated under dryness stimulation (Fig. 5A). Through time-series clustering, we found that DAP expression levels showed four main trends during drought treatment and re-watering: there was no obvious rule in Group 1 DAPs; Group 2 DAPs gradually increased throughout the dryness and rehydration period; Group 4 DAPs peaked after 3 days of dryness treatment and then remained high; while group 3 DAPs show a wave-like change, increasing after 3 days of drought, decreasing after 6 days of drought, and then finally increasing again after rewatering (Fig. 5B).

Figure 5
number 5

Pooled analysis of DAPs during drought treatments. (A) Heat map illustrating DAP expression profiles at three time points (3-day drought, 6-day drought, and rewatering). (B) Four enriched clusters of gene expression profiles determined using the K-means algorithm. (VS) Randomly selected DAPs were analyzed by RT-qPCR. (D) GO group 3 protein enrichment result. Red color represents BP (biological process), green color represents MF (molecular function), and blue color represents CC (cellular component). (E) GO cluster 4 protein enrichment result. Red color represents BP (biological process), green color represents MF (molecular function), and blue color represents CC (cellular component).

We detected transcriptional changes in genes encoding DAPs using RT-qPCR. For the 16 randomly selected DAPs, mRNA changes were consistent with the trend of protein changes for 8 DAPs, indicating that maize regulated expression changes of these proteins at the transcriptional level under drought stimuli ( Fig. 5C). In contrast, there are still mRNA changes inconsistent with protein changes for 8 other DAPs (data not shown), indicating that regulation of the abundance of these proteins may occur at the level of translation or stability. proteins.

To explore the function of these different cluster proteins, we use GO Analyzer to annotate each cluster. There were no enrichment terms for groups 1 and 2. Some of the group 3 proteins participate in catabolic process and metabolic process, and group 4 proteins are involved in redox process and the metabolic process (Fig. 5D and E).

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Mining Chemicals Market Size Worth $18.13 Billion by 2030: Grand View Research, Inc. https://imphos.org/mining-chemicals-market-size-worth-18-13-billion-by-2030-grand-view-research-inc/ Tue, 07 Jun 2022 13:00:00 +0000 https://imphos.org/mining-chemicals-market-size-worth-18-13-billion-by-2030-grand-view-research-inc/ SAN FRANCISCO, June 7, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The Global mining chemicals market should reach $18.13 billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of 6.7% over the forecast period, according to the new report from Grand View Research, Inc. The growth is mainly due to factors such as increasing demand for minerals, l increase in water extraction […]]]>

SAN FRANCISCO, June 7, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The Global mining chemicals market should reach $18.13 billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of 6.7% over the forecast period, according to the new report from Grand View Research, Inc. The growth is mainly due to factors such as increasing demand for minerals, l increase in water extraction and treatment activities.

The penetration of the product in explosives and drilling applications is considerable due to an increase in mining activities across the globe. Africa has an abundance of natural resources such as gold, diamond, phosphate, copper, iron ore and many more. Explosives and drilling methods are used to extract minerals from deep within the earth. Rising mining activities are expected to drive the product growth globally over the forecast period.

Key industry insights and findings from the report:

  • Asia Pacific The region has experienced the fastest growth rate of 7.4% in terms of revenue from 2022 to 2030. This is attributable to the increase in mining activities in major economies such as India and China.
  • Iron ore is expected to grow at a faster growth rate of 7.0% in terms of revenue from 2022 to 2030. The demand for high-grade iron ore is expected to increase during the forecast period owing to demand growing iron ore with fewer impurities from the steel industry.
  • Gold ore is expected to experience a faster growth rate of 6.7% after iron ore in terms of revenue from 2022 to 2030, due to its use in different applications including medicine, water, printing paper and making colors for painting.
  • Explosives & Drilling accounted for the highest share of around 35.4% of the total market volume in 2021. This high share is attributed to the growing demand for minerals and lead metals as Explosives & Drilling are major operations used in surface mining.
  • Regulatory compliance is a major concern for market players. Sustainable production and distribution of products while meeting the standards required by the European Commission and EPA is a key responsibility for every manufacturer.

Get more industry insights from a 153-page market research report,”Mining Chemicals Market Size, Share and Trends Analysis Report by Ore Type (Gold Powder, Iron, Copper), by Application (Mineral Processing, Explosives and Drilling), by Region and Forecast segment, 2022-2030“, published by Grand View Research.

Mining Chemicals Market Growth and Trends

Rising demand for different minerals, especially gold across all regions, has led to increase in mining activities and hence is expected to drive the market for the product over the forecast period. The demand for gold increases every year in India, ChinaUnited States, Saudi Arabiathe bucket, Turkey, Russiaand Egypt being its main consumers. Gold is mainly used for making jewelry. From 2020, India and China together account for 57% of total gold consumption in the world.

Increase foreign investment in emerging countries in Asia Pacificincluding India and Chinacontributed to the growth of the market in the region. India has an abundance of natural reserves of coal, bauxite, titanium, diamond and limestone. The growing mineral mining and processing activities in the country are expected to boost the use of mining chemicals in the region during the forecast period.

Leading manufacturers in the industry are focusing on expanding the production of their major product portfolios, including high-grade mining chemicals, to gain higher market shares. The invention of new technological and chemical advances has led to the development of environmentally friendly products, which use sustainable manufacturing processes for production. Arkema, Sasol and BASE SE are among the market players that supply raw materials for the production of sustainable products.

Mining Chemicals Market Segmentation

Grand View Research has segmented the Global Mining Chemicals market report on the basis of ore type, application, and region:

Ore Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Million; Volume, Kilotons, 2018 – 2030)

  • Type of powdered gold ore
    • collectors
    • Coatings
    • Flocculants
    • Grinding aids
    • Extraction solvents
    • Dust absorbers
    • Defoamer
    • Antiscale
    • Biocides
    • Lubricants
    • Foamers
    • Others
  • Type of iron ore
    • collectors
    • Coatings
    • Flocculants
    • Grinding aids
    • Extraction solvents
    • Dust absorbers
    • Defoamer
    • Antiscale
    • Biocides
    • Lubricants
    • Foamers
    • Others
  • Type of copper ore
    • collectors
    • Coatings
    • Flocculants
    • Grinding Aids
    • Extraction solvents
    • Dust absorbers
    • Defoamer
    • Antiscale
    • Biocides
    • Lubricants
    • Foamers
    • Others
  • Type of phosphate ore
    • collectors
    • Coatings
    • Flocculants
    • Grinding aids
    • Extraction solvents
    • Dust absorbers
    • Defoamer
    • Antiscale
    • Biocides
    • Lubricants
    • Foamers
    • Others
  • Other types of ore
    • collectors
    • Coatings
    • Flocculants
    • Grinding aids
    • Extraction solvents
    • Dust absorbers
    • Defoamer
    • Antiscale
    • Biocides
    • Lubricants
    • Foamers
    • Others

Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Million; Volume, Kilotons, 2018 – 2030)

  • Mineral processing
  • Explosives and drilling
  • Water treatment
  • Others

Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Thousand; Volume, Kilotons, 2018 – 2030)

  • North America
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • UK
    • France
    • Italy
    • Spain
    • Russia
  • Asia Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • South Korea
  • Central & South America
    • Brazil
    • Peru
    • Chile
    • Colombia
  • Middle East & Africa
    • Saudi Arabia
    • South Africa
    • Ghana
    • Morocco
    • ground floor
    • Zambia
    • Zimbabwe
    • Tanzania
    • mali
    • Ivory Coast
    • Sudan

List of Mining Chemicals Market Key Players

  • AECI Mining Chemicals
  • BASF SE
  • Ashland
  • Dow
  • Kimleigh Chemicals SA (Pty) Ltd (PTY) LTD
  • Cytec Solvay Group
  • Arkema
  • Clariant
  • Nowata
  • Kemira
  • Shell Chemicals
  • Quaker Chemical Corporation
  • Akzo Nobel SA
  • Solénis
  • sasol

Check out other related studies published by Grand View Research:

  • Dolomites mining market The global dolomite mining market size is expected to reach $2.33 billion by 2027, expanding at a CAGR of 3.8% from 2020 to 2027, according to a new report from Grand View Research, Inc. Rising public and private spending on transport infrastructure development in emerging economies of Asia Pacific is the main driver of the industry.
  • Africa mining chemicals market The Africa Mining Chemicals Market Size is Expected to Reach $960.97 million by 2028, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2021 to 2028. Factors such as growing demand for minerals, increasing mining activities and water treatment are likely to fuel the market growth during the forecast period.
  • mining equipment market The size of the global mining equipment market is expected to reach $368.99 billion by 2027, posting a CAGR of 12.7% over the forecast period, according to a new report from Grand View Research. The growing trend of investments in renewable energy facilities and deployment of innovative technologies are some of the major factors driving the market.

Browse Grand View Research results Drilling and mining equipment industry Research reports.

About Grand View Research

Grand View Research, a US-based market research and consulting firm, provides syndicated and custom research reports and consulting services. Checked in California and whose head office is at San Francisco, the company has more than 425 analysts and consultants, adding more than 1,200 market research reports to its extensive database each year. These reports offer in-depth analysis of 46 industries in 25 major countries around the world. Using an interactive market intelligence platform, Grand View Research helps Fortune 500 companies and renowned academic institutes understand the global and regional business environment and assess upcoming opportunities.

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SOURCEGrand View Research, Inc.

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Farmers gamble as fertilizer crisis threatens yields https://imphos.org/farmers-gamble-as-fertilizer-crisis-threatens-yields/ Mon, 23 May 2022 21:01:29 +0000 https://imphos.org/farmers-gamble-as-fertilizer-crisis-threatens-yields/ Data center Farmers gamble as fertilizer crisis threatens yields Tuesday, May 24, 2022 Prisca Keter, a farmer in Kabobo in Soy ward, Uasin Gishu County, shows a farm ready to plant wheat on May 21, 2022. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NMG The severe shortage of cheap fertilizers has hit large-scale farmers hard, threatening Kenya’s […]]]>

Data center

Farmers gamble as fertilizer crisis threatens yields


Prisca Keter, a farmer in Kabobo in Soy ward, Uasin Gishu County, shows a farm ready to plant wheat on May 21, 2022. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NMG

The severe shortage of cheap fertilizers has hit large-scale farmers hard, threatening Kenya’s food security and export volumes.

Wheat, maize, tea and flower growers who have been restricted to buying just 10 bags of subsidized fertilizer per farmer say they have reduced the acreage of some crops, abandoned fertilizer-starved crops, which means that in the next harvest season, staple food volumes will be very low.

Dr Timothy Njagi, a senior fellow at Egerton University’s Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy, said the high cost and scarcity of agricultural inputs, attributed to global uncertainties such as the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia, will lead to lower production. .

“Due to rising costs of farm inputs such as fuel and fertilizer, a farmer who was cultivating 200 acres is likely to reduce his acreage to 100 acres. This reduction is expected to lead to lower harvests and higher food prices,” he says.

Prisca Keter, a wheat farmer in Kabobo in Soy, Uasin Gishu county, is one of many who have reduced the area devoted to cultivation. On her farm, she has plowed acres and acres of land but has yet to plant.

“My farm is ready to plant wheat but I have no fertilizer. I had asked for the contribution from the National Cereals and Produce Board {NCPB} at 2,800 shillings, and I am waiting for it because traders are selling at 6,000 shillings,” she says.

Last year she planted wheat on 40 acres of land but this year, like many farmers in the area, she has reduced the area to 15 acres.

She was also forced to use one bag of fertilizer instead of two bags, which she says will lead to lower crop productivity.

From the local cooperative, she will receive five bags of planting fertilizer and top dressing each, which is barely enough for her farm. There were also problems with distribution and access to fertilizer, which delayed the timing of application. Top dressing fertilizer works best when timing is critical.

Normally Mrs. Keter harvests 30 bags but she expects a drop to 10 to 15 bags per acre.

“In addition to struggling to get fertilizer, the cost of agrochemicals, fuel, seeds and other inputs has also increased. If the government rationalizes the distribution of fertilizers and also sets the minimum prices for agricultural products, we will be sure that we can recoup our investment,” says the farmer.

coffee producer

David Chombet, a farmer in Ziwa in Uasin Gishu, stands in front of a section of his farm now grown in coffee.

The farmer says he reduced the area under maize from 10 acres to four acres and planted passion fruit, tomatoes and coffee on the remaining land. These crops, he says, require less fertilizer.

Years ago, coffee farming was rare in Uasin Gishu, but years of high cost of maize production due to soaring fertilizer prices pushed Mr. Chombet towards coffee farming which, he says, it, can thrive with organic manure.

On his farm, he prepares manure from his cows and buys more of it from other ranchers to use on his coffee, instead of relying on the erratic and expensive inorganic fertilizer.

“The cost of fertilizers and other inputs has made farming unsustainable this year. I needed two bags of inorganic fertilizer but I can’t afford it, so I opted to use five kilos of compost manure,” says the farmer whose tomato crop is in a greenhouse and passion fruit under drip irrigation.

A 50 kilogram bag of urea sells for between 7,000 and 7,500 shillings, driving up the cost of farming.

In June, farmers usually need Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) fertilizer for their crops. Currently, a bag of CAN costs Sh5,000 per 50 kg bag, while Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) costs Sh6,000 in the retail market.

Micah Cheserem, the former chairman of the Income Distribution Commission who grows flowers and avocados in Uasin Gishu, adds that the flower industry has also not been spared from expensive fertilizers. Flower production costs jumped 50%.

“High fertilizer and fuel prices have forced us to ship some of our produce by sea due to high transportation costs,” says Cheserem.

The former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya notes that for avocados he applies compost manure rather than synthetic fertilizers, to meet export market needs.

County Agriculture Officer Dr. Mary Nzomo said Trans Nzoia crop yields are expected to decline by 30%. The county’s annual maize production is between five and 5.3 million bags while in Uasin Gishu, farmers produce five million bags of maize at its peak.

“Some farmers have planted without fertilizer while others have used manure which is a slow release fertilizer {a kind of input that does not help plants to thrive quickly}. I want to urge farmers to use leaf feeds to boost their crops,” Dr. Nzomo said.

Over 2.2 million bags

The Ministry of Agriculture has set aside 5.7 billion shillings to subsidize more than 2.2 million 50kg bags for farmers who grow food crops. These quantities are intended to support the cultivation of 1.13 million acres.

Supply problems were blamed on an ammonia shortage; a key element in the fertilizer manufacturing process, since countries such as Turkey and Ukraine, where the raw material comes from, do not export.

Tighter supplies from larger producers like China which announced the suspension of exports to protect its domestic market is also to blame. China, the world’s top phosphate exporter, said it would temporarily suspend exports until June 2022.

According to the latest World Bank Fertilizer Price Index report, high energy costs coupled with soaring natural gas and coal prices have driven up the cost of fertilizers.

Global environmental regulations have also contributed to higher prices for raw materials such as sulfur and ammonia used to make fertilizers. “Prices will remain volatile due to global market forces that may force some farmers to plant without the nutrients,” said Henry Ogola, an expert in importing agricultural inputs.

The NCPB, designated to distribute agricultural inputs, admitted logistical challenges due to severe shortages in the global market.

“We are facing an insufficient supply of top dressing fertilizer, but we have partnered with suppliers to provide an alternative to farmers,” said Joseph Kimote, NCPB’s chief executive.

Government subsidized CAN top dressing sells for 1,950 shillings but is missing from NCPB stores, forcing farmers to dig deep into their pockets to buy the inputs at 7,200 shillings at retail markets.

According to Mr. Kimote, the NCPB aims to distribute 800,000 DAP planting fertilizers, 200,000 bags of urea, 600,000 bags of CAN and 600,000 bags of NPK.

But they have so far distributed over 100,000 bags of planting fertilizer and top dressing. The country needs about 650,000 tons of fertilizer per year.

Experts claim that NPK fertilizer is also superior, so the shortage of DAP should not delay planting.

“There are other fertilizers like NPK 23; 23 which is suitable for planting crops in the region unlike the DAP variety,” Mr. Kimote said. The agency has partnered with Toyota Tshusho, Mavuno, Yara, Mijingo among other suppliers to speed up the distribution of fertilizer to farmers.

Mr Kimote added that they have increased the allocation to farmers who have met the stipulated requirements from 20 to 40 bags.

“Farmers with certified documents are now allowed to buy 40 bags instead of the initial 20, both for planting and top dressing,” he said.

The scarcity of low-cost fertilizers has not spared small tea producers who are facing heavy losses.

Some tea growers say they buy finishing fertilizer from retailers at 6,800 shillings per 50 kilogram bag in the retail market. This is expected to eat into their profit margins.

The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) offers fertilizer to its members at about 1,990 shillings per 50-kilogram bag and delivers the produce to buying centers, reducing transport costs, but the program has been hit hard by the supply instability.

“The fall in world tea prices is a blow given that we have to bear additional costs to buy fertilizers at retail prices. The cash crop has also been damaged by frost and hailstones in the past two seasons and it could take a long time before prices recover, subjecting us to heavy losses,” said Mathew Too, a grower from tea in Chepkumia, Nandi County.

[email protected]

[email protected]

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Corporate Ladder: your weekly guide to executive appointments https://imphos.org/corporate-ladder-your-weekly-guide-to-executive-appointments/ Sun, 15 May 2022 23:33:55 +0000 https://imphos.org/corporate-ladder-your-weekly-guide-to-executive-appointments/ Cameron Wood David Isherwood Executive review at Beston Beston Global Food Company has reorganized its management under new CEO Fabrizio Jorge. In changes announced to shareholders last week, the South Australian dairy company tapped the Singapore-based Leprino Foods executive Cameron Wood and Principal Director of Fonterra David Isherwood for key executive roles. Woods is currently […]]]>

Cameron Wood

David Isherwood

Executive review at Beston

Beston Global Food Company has reorganized its management under new CEO Fabrizio Jorge.

In changes announced to shareholders last week, the South Australian dairy company tapped the Singapore-based Leprino Foods executive Cameron Wood and Principal Director of Fonterra David Isherwood for key executive roles.

Woods is currently General Manager Asia Pacific for Leprino Foods and has been named Director of the Food and Beverage Business Unit.

Woods’ resume includes senior positions in marketing and brand management at Nestle, L’Oreal and five years in Singapore with Leprino, the world’s largest mozzarella cheese maker. It starts with Beston today.

Isherwood, meanwhile, was named director of manufacturing. Similar to its new CEO, Isherwood has spent the past 20 years with New Zealand dairy multinational Fonterra, most recently as a special project manager in Auckland.

His appointment as CMO at Beston sees him replace the ‘abandoned’ COO position vacated by an experienced dairy manager Frank Baldi.

Baldi, who joined Beston in October 2020, resigned in March this year to become a freelance operations consultant in Victoria.

In other changes at Beston, Nick Wagner got a permanent promotion to CFO. The former Oz Minerals and Codan accountant had held the position since April 2021 after stepping down as group financial controller.

Group Human Resources Manager Adrian Bartsch also earned a promotion to director of people and culture. A former human resources coordinator at Thomas Foods, Bartsch has worked at Beston since April 2019.

CEO Fabrizio Jorge, who took charge of Beston just a month ago, said the significant management changes were part of a “review and reorganization of the management team” which will see the corporate leadership structure “reflect our key strategic priorities”.

“The changes reflected in the new organizational structure will allow us to build on the momentum that has been created at Beston and take a much deeper sales and channel-focused approach to our sales base,” he said. he told the ASX.

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A new non-human primate model of desiccating stress-induced dry eye https://imphos.org/a-new-non-human-primate-model-of-desiccating-stress-induced-dry-eye/ Fri, 13 May 2022 15:10:18 +0000 https://imphos.org/a-new-non-human-primate-model-of-desiccating-stress-induced-dry-eye/ Animals Twelve female rhesus macaques (Mr Mulatta) aged 4–5 years were used in these experiments. Monkeys had free access to drinking water and were fed monkey food (12% calories from fat, 18% calories from protein, and 70% calories from carbohydrates; 200-300 g/day ). In addition, a daily ration of additional fruits, vegetables or supplements and […]]]>

Animals

Twelve female rhesus macaques (Mr Mulatta) aged 4–5 years were used in these experiments. Monkeys had free access to drinking water and were fed monkey food (12% calories from fat, 18% calories from protein, and 70% calories from carbohydrates; 200-300 g/day ). In addition, a daily ration of additional fruits, vegetables or supplements and various toys were also provided. All experimental protocols (AW2038) have been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Sichuan Primed Shines Bio-tech Co., Ltd. No animals were sacrificed for the purpose of this work. This study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Association for Research of Vision and Ophthalmology.

Induction of dry eye

Monkeys were housed in an environmentally controlled room with relative humidity (RH) less than 15%, airflow of 12 L/min, and temperature of 21°C to 26°C, for 36 consecutive days. Dry eye was assessed clinically using corneal fluorescein staining on days 0, 14, 21, and 36 after dry eye induction.

Treatment plan

Twenty-one days after dry eye induction, monkeys in the controlled environment room were randomly divided into two treatment groups (n = 6 monkeys/12 eyes in each group): (1) one group receiving topical normal saline as placebo, (2) topical Pred Forte 1% group (Allergan, Inc., USA). Two drops of normal saline and 1% Pred Forte were applied topically to both eyes of unanesthetized monkeys three times daily for 14 days (total, 42 doses). Dry eye was assessed clinically using fluorescein staining on treatment days 0, 7, and 14 (treatment day 0 equals post-induction day 21).

Corneal fluorescein staining (CFS)

Corneal fluorescein staining was performed on days 0 (baseline), 14, 21 and 36 after dry eye induction and on days 0, 7 and 14 of the treatment regimen. Ten microliters of 10% fluorescein liquid (Alcon Laboratories Inc., USA) was applied to the inferior-lateral conjunctival sac of the monkey, and after 10 minutes, corneal fluorescein staining was examined under the cobalt blue light using a slit lamp biomicroscope (TOKA TSL-5, Wenzhou Raymond Photoelectricity Tech. Co., Ltd., China). Punctate staining was assessed in a masked manner using the National Eye Institute scoring system, giving a score of 0-3 for each of five areas of the cornea17.

Tear Film Breakup Time (TFBUT)

Tear film break-up time was measured according to the guidelines set out in the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) 2017 report11. Ten microliters of 2% fluorescein preservative-free solution were applied to the conjunctival sac with a micropipette. The monkeys were tricked into blinking their eyes three times by an ophthalmologist to ensure adequate mixing of the dye. The time interval between the last complete blink and the appearance of the first corneal black spot, indicating tear film breakdown, was measured using a stopwatch. The intensity of the background illumination was kept constant (cobalt blue light) and an integrated yellow filter was used to improve the visibility of the tear film over the entire cornea. The TFBUT was measured three times per eye and the mean value of the measurements was calculated.

Schirmer test

The Schirmer I test after local anesthetic application was performed on days 0 (baseline) and 21 after dry eye induction to measure baseline tear secretion in monkeys, as previously described.4. Briefly, a 35 mm Schirmer test strip (Eickemeyer, Tuttlingen, Germany) was inserted into the inferior conjunctival fornix at the junction of the middle and lateral third of the lower lid margin. The eyelids were gently closed and the extent of wetting was measured after 1 and 5 min, respectively.

Collection of tears

Monkeys were laid on a table in the supine position after being anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of 10 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (Jiangsu Zhongmu Beikang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China). Thirty microliters of phosphate-buffered saline solution was instilled into the lower fornix, and the monkeys were manually made to blink eight times. A total of 25 μL of tear lavage was collected with a micropipette from the lateral canthus. To minimize irritation to the ocular surface, we collected the tear wash immediately after application. The tear wash was placed in a 1.5 ml Eppendorf tube and stored at -80°C until further examination.

Measurement of IL-17, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ

LEGENDplex™ bead-based immunoassays (BioLegend, USA) were used to measure IL-17, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ levels in tears according to manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 25 μL of the solution consisting of the tear, standard, mixed beads, and buffer solutions were added to each tube. Then the tube was centrifuged at 800 rpm and incubated for 2 h at room temperature. After three washes to remove unbound proteins, 25 μL of corresponding detection antibodies were added to each tube. The tube was then centrifuged at 800 rpm and incubated for another hour at room temperature. After three washes to remove unbound detection antibodies, samples were read on a flow cytometer (Beckman CytoFLEX, USA) and then analyzed using LEGENDplex™ V8.0 software (BioLegend, USA).

statistical analyzes

Groups were compared by paired or unpaired two-sample t-tests. All values ​​are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyzes were performed using Prism 9 software.

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Above-normal rains could be a boon, but fertilizer crisis could dampen farmers’ hopes https://imphos.org/above-normal-rains-could-be-a-boon-but-fertilizer-crisis-could-dampen-farmers-hopes/ Mon, 02 May 2022 01:01:53 +0000 https://imphos.org/above-normal-rains-could-be-a-boon-but-fertilizer-crisis-could-dampen-farmers-hopes/ Nepal is expected to receive above normal monsoon rains this year, according to meteorologists in South Asia. Ideally, this increases the growth prospects of the economy battered by the Covid pandemic. Abundant rainfall will not only increase agricultural production, but will also help replenish groundwater and reservoirs essential for electricity consumption and generation. But there […]]]>

Nepal is expected to receive above normal monsoon rains this year, according to meteorologists in South Asia. Ideally, this increases the growth prospects of the economy battered by the Covid pandemic.

Abundant rainfall will not only increase agricultural production, but will also help replenish groundwater and reservoirs essential for electricity consumption and generation.

But there are concerns.

Officials say Nepal may not be able to reap the gains this year. The crisis of a crucial element – chemical fertilizers – is expected to hurt the economy and could even lead to a large-scale food crisis.

Time is running out and it seems that the government is unable to import enough chemical fertilizers for the main monsoon crop, mainly paddy.

The paddy crop is a major contributor to the economy and the planting season is expected to start next month.

As of May 1, fertilizer stocks at two state suppliers—Salt Trading Corporation and Agriculture Inputs Company—were nearly depleted. And import prospects are also diminishing, according to multiple sources familiar with the matter.

At least three government fertilizer supplier officials the Post spoke to said the shortage in Nepal during the key paddy transplanting period was an ongoing problem and that this year the crisis may worsen further. .

If the monsoon is above normal and the fertilizer supply is below normal, there is no gain, they said, adding that the agricultural sector would suffer and farmers would lose income.

Although there is immediate concern about the impact of high food prices on food securityparticularly in low- and middle-income countries, soaring fertilizer prices and concerns about availability are clouding future harvests and therefore risk continued high food prices for a longer period, according to Washington International Food Policy Research Institute.

The price increase of coal in China, the main feedstock for the production of ammonia there, as well as the phasing out of inefficient production capacities, have also led to a reduction in production, also contributing to the rise in global fertilizer prices.

High energy prices, strong demand and limited supply have also pushed potash spot prices higher in 2021 and 2022. China has restricted urea imports since October 2021.

According to a consensus statement released by the 22nd session of the South Asia Climate Outlook Forum last week normal to above normal rainfall is very likely during the 2022 southwest monsoon season [June–September] over most parts of South Asia.

Geographically, above normal rainfall is very likely along the foothills of the Himalayas, in many areas of the northwestern and central parts of the region, and in parts of the eastern and southern parts of the region, according to the press release.

Nepal plans to unveil the country’s outlook on Friday.

“The encouraging forecast of an above normal monsoon augurs well for a timely start of planting of summer crops, especially paddy,” said Indira Kandel, Senior Divisional Meteorologist and head of the climate analysis section in the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology. “The monsoon obviously benefits the country’s economy, mainly crop production. But there should be good preparations to reap the benefits.

The climatic outlook invites the region to be well prepared.

“There are good rain forecasts and along with that, farmers should get enough fertilizer and seeds in time for the country to benefit from the above normal monsoon,” Kandel said.

Apart from the agricultural perspective, an above normal monsoon could prove catastrophic if the response is not timely, Kandel pointed out.

“It’s a sensitive issue. You need good planning to minimize risk,” Kandel said.

The monsoon is crucial for the economy of 4.85 trillion rupees, as it brings almost 80% of the rains needed by farms, in addition to replenishing reservoirs and aquifers.

Almost two-thirds of Nepal’s agricultural land is rainfed and depends on the annual rains from June to September. Agriculture represents 23.95% of the economy but supports more than 60% of the population.

Summer crops, mainly paddy, alone contribute more than 11 percent to the national gross domestic product and are the main sources of income for more than half of the population.

Paddy, which is transplanted in June and harvested in October, contributes about 7% to gross domestic product.

But the paddy needs fertilizer.

Chemical fertilizers in Nepal are a political commodity. Experts say it could stoke unrest among the country’s politically important farmers ahead of the general election.

The government played.

“We’re in a tough spot,” said Pankaj Joshi, deputy chief executive of the Salt Trading Corporation, a public-private supply company that sells subsidized chemical fertilizers. “The problem started when China restricted exports. Then the Russian-Ukrainian war aggravated the situation.

Moscow invaded Ukraine on February 24 and the war continued, affecting shipping and impacting the global economy.

“Russia offers a 30% discount on fertilizer prices, but no one is willing to risk importing from the war zone,” Joshi said.

During the paddy planting season, Nepal will need 210,000 tons of chemical fertilizers. And the country must secure between 150,000 and 170,000 tons to avoid devastation.

“So far, Salt Trading Corporation has been able to secure 42,000 tons over the next four months,” Joshi said. “This shipment will start entering the country after 20 days…if things go as planned.

In recent months, according to state-owned fertilizer suppliers, many tenders have been canceled by global suppliers [who supply to the two state-owned companies] due to rising international prices.

Agriculture Inputs Company, the state-owned fertilizer supplier, had planned to import 50,000 tons of chemical fertilizers but “a technical error” occurred in the documentation process and it was cancelled, according to a development official.

“He has handed out a tender and it will take at least 30 days to open the letter of credit and another 90 days to bring the consignment, if things go as planned,” the official said. “That means it will take at least four months to import fertilizer for June.”

World food and fertilizer market prices have risen dramatically over the past year and a half and reached even higher levels after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February, reaching their all time highs ever recorded in March, according to the International Food Policy Research Institute.

According to Joshi, urea cost $390 per ton in November 2020, but it now costs $1,100 per ton. In Nepal, urea currently costs 134 rupees per kg, while public suppliers sell it at 15 rupees per kg.

The price of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) was $375 per tonne two years ago, and it now costs $1,307 per tonne. The price of DAP has increased to 160 rupees per kg, but is priced at 43 rupees per kg at a subsidized rate.

“The price is extraordinarily high,” Joshi said.

For example, the purchase of 100,000 tons of chemical fertilizers, which cost 3 billion rupees two years ago, now costs 12 billion rupees.

Normally, the country plans to provide 500,000 tons of chemical fertilizers per year by spending about Rs 15 billion. “Importing the same amount of fertilizer will now cost Rs 75 billion,” Joshi said.

Officials say that during election time, the government cannot make an unpopular decision to raise prices. On the other hand, it cannot finance the purchases of fertilizer either, given the high prices.

This puts Nepal’s economy in a dilemma.

Even neighboring India, with whom Nepal recently signed a government-to-government agreement to import fertilizers, is one of the most affected by the global fertilizer crisis. India imports up to a third of its fertilizers and is the world’s largest buyer of urea and diammonium phosphate.

Persistent shortages of chemical fertilizers in Nepal are due to multiple factors, from low stocks to poor supply mechanisms and faulty policies to international price factors.

This causes chronic distress for tens of thousands of farmers each year who must also worry about other threats such as droughts, floods and crop failures.

A comprehensive audit report by the Office of the Auditor General pointed to significant policy gaps in the chemical fertilizer supply and distribution mechanism and stated that the government itself does not know the real fertilizer needs of the country.

“Farmers are forced to stand in long queues at the depots where fertilizer is distributed each year. This year the queues will be much longer but only a few will get vital agricultural inputs,” according to a government official who wished to remain anonymous. “The situation escapes us. The only glimmer of hope is India if it sends fertilizer.

Prakash Kumar Sanjel, spokesman for the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, said the government-to-government agreement to import 150,000 tons of chemical fertilizers from India is a work in progress.

India has named its Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers and on the Nepali side, the government has appointed Agriculture Inputs Company to sign a fertilizer import business deal following the initial deal that was struck on Feb. 28 between the two neighbors, he said.

The Agriculture Inputs Company chief left for Delhi last Friday to discuss a trade deal with Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd.

“The joint steering committee of Nepal and India is about to finalize the rates according to the import parity price,” Sanjel said. The import parity price is the border price of an imported good, which includes transport costs and international tariffs.

But, if this does not happen, the country’s economy as well as the food supply situation could play out differently in the next fiscal year, according to an official from one of the state-owned fertilizer suppliers.

“We are hopeful and expect the negotiations to be completed soon and the fertilizer to arrive by the end of May,” Sanjel said.

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Fertilizer crunch accelerates shift to soil nutrient alternatives | Harvests https://imphos.org/fertilizer-crunch-accelerates-shift-to-soil-nutrient-alternatives-harvests/ Fri, 29 Apr 2022 13:00:00 +0000 https://imphos.org/fertilizer-crunch-accelerates-shift-to-soil-nutrient-alternatives-harvests/ Fertilizer prices, already on the rise before Russia invaded Ukraine, have been sent into the stratosphere. How soon are they likely to return to earth? According to data from the American Farm Bureau and the United States Department of Agriculture, fertilizer costs are expected to jump 12% this year, after rising 17% in 2021. According […]]]>






Fertilizer prices, already on the rise before Russia invaded Ukraine, have been sent into the stratosphere. How soon are they likely to return to earth? According to data from the American Farm Bureau and the United States Department of Agriculture, fertilizer costs are expected to jump 12% this year, after rising 17% in 2021. According to an agricultural publication, the price of fertilizer, diammonium phosphate, is the highest ever.

A wave of anxiety is hitting farmers around the world. Peru declared a state of emergency for its agriculture on April 8. Economists forecast widespread increases in food prices.

How did American producers react?

Soybean planting intentions ‘shocked the industry

An immediate response appears to have been the decision of row crop growers to plant more soybeans than corn. The price of both commodities has risen and corn has great profit margins right now, but soybeans require fewer inputs, including fertilizer, than corn. Many maize growing areas are also facing a dry summer.

According to the Prospective Planting Report released March 31 by the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service, growers surveyed across the United States intend to plant a record 91 million acres of soybeans in 2022. , up 4% year-on-year. Purdue University’s Commercial Ag News said the planting intentions report “shocked the industry with surprisingly small planting intentions for corn and surprisingly large planting intentions for soybeans.” The NASS acreage estimates are based on surveys conducted during the first two weeks of March among a sample of nearly 73,000 farmers across the country.







4-8-22_sol-tractor.jpeg

Seeded acreage intentions for soybeans are up or unchanged in 24 of the 29 estimated states. The largest increases are expected in Illinois and Missouri, where growers in each state aim to plant 400,000 more acres than in 2021. Planting intentions may change, but if they materialize, the acreage planted with soybeans in Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin will be the largest on record.

Corn growers said they plan to plant 89.5 million acres in 2022, down 4% from a year ago. Decreases in corn acreage from last year of 200,000 or more are expected in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota and Wisconsin . Record acreage is expected in Nevada and South Dakota. Record acreage is expected in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

Interest in alternative practices is growing

Producers are also increasing their exploration of alternatives to chemical fertilizers. A Reuters article reports that an Illinois manure supplier is experiencing record demand.

David Kleinschmidt, a longtime proponent of regenerative practices, told the High Plains Journal that his institute, UnderstandingAg, has “never had so many requests. I have daily phone conversations” with growers exploring the regenerative approach, which uses less and sometimes no chemical fertilizers. “Now is a good time to focus on soil health,” Kleinschmidt said.

UnderstandingAg teaches principles rather than silver bullets, Kleinschmidt said, including that every piece of land is different and requires in-depth study and a tailored approach. “Farmers are looking to diversify crop rotations more, to recycle more nutrients from the soil.” Grain rye and legumes can be rotated with corn and beans for better soil health, and ruminants can play an important role in Kleinschmidt’s vision if grazed properly.







4-8-22-Jing.jpeg

“The back and forth between the corn and the beans is more of a pendulum motion than a real rotation,” Kleinschmidt said. Adding a small grain to the rotation with various cover crops incorporated into the rotation can improve soil health. With proper management, farmers can significantly reduce the amount of inputs needed to produce a crop without sacrificing yields and improving overall farm profitability.

He worries that with the West facing more drought, many areas, including western Kansas, could face another Dust Bowl.

Among the alternatives that are seeing renewed interest is a product from a startup called CoverCress Inc. which has genetically modified pennycress grass into a cover crop that can provide an additional source of income for farmers. , while requiring fewer inputs and field trips.

CoverCress is a new oilseed crop grown over the winter between normal full season corn and soybeans. It acts as a cover crop while producing oil and protein-rich food that the company says can fit into markets similar to canola. While CoverCress is a brassica like mustard and does not fix nitrogen like legumes, it can reduce fertilizer and water use like other cover crops.

CoverCress Inc. (formerly known as Arvegenix) has been developing its CoverCress cover crop from the common native pennycress since 2013. Its team of geneticists removed some undesirable traits, increased its oil content and yield, and tweaked it. transformed into a commercial crop.

Native pennycress grain has high levels of erucic, fiber, and sinigrin, compounds that limit the use of its oil and flour. But CoverCress geneticists have developed strains that have a new composition and make CoverCress a whole new crop for the American Midwest, without the limitations of native pennycress, according to the company.

Dale Sorensen, Commercial Director of CoverCress, said recent farmer interest in CoverCress was “beyond my wildest speculation”. “Soybean and hard corn growers are showing interest,” he said.

CoverCress is a “nutrient scavenger” that would work well in rotation with nitrogen-fixing cover crops as part of a total cover crop rotation with corn and soybean production, he said. declared. “We get four crops a year in the greenhouse,” he told the High Plains Journal. He said CoverCress’ nutrient requirements are “significantly lower” than winter wheat, about 40 to 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre.

This year has been a rollout year for the commercialization of CoverCress in the central Illinois and eastern Missouri launch area, with between 8,000 and 10,000 acres planted for harvest in the fall of 2022 for a harvest in the spring of 2023 with seeds provided under the cereal harvest contract by CoverCress. Given the level of interest, CoverCress hopes to significantly expand its footprint over the next few years.

Sorensen said the company is now focusing its marketing efforts on high-quality oil that can be produced by crushing CoverCress, comparable to canola oil. “Currently we are not pursuing the food market, but we are focusing on biofuels,” he said. The vegetable oil market has recently exploded due to demand for renewable diesel feedstock. CoverCress can be crushed for oil or flour. Although the meal contains less protein than soybean meal, it has been used for chicken production. The oil content is greater by weight than that of soybeans. Sorensen said researchers worked on improving the quality of meals for cattle after the crush.

Agriculture startup Pivot Bio is another company offering alternatives to traditional fertilizers that has garnered record interest. Pivot Bio calls its approach “precision microbial adaptation”. She has developed a proprietary, patented microbial liquid product that she believes could significantly reduce the use of traditional fertilizers, while delivering the same amount of quality nitrogen to the soil. It is an in-furrow product that is applied directly to the seed via a drill.

The microbes in Pivot Bio are mapped using intensive AI technologies and produced by fermentation, according to the Pivot Bio website. They are fed with sugars until they reach a high enough concentration to be sold. “Fermentation replaces the Haber-Bosch process, the energy-intensive process of creating synthetic nitrogen, and reduces GHG emissions by 89%,” its website claims.

Pivot Bio’s mission “is to provide plant-ready nitrogen without negative side effects,” according to Randy Minton, Pivot Bio’s Sustainability Task Force Leader. “We are the only company in the world to have shipped a synthetic nitrogen fertilizer replacement at scale and with performance that meets the high demands of farmers.”

“We have competitors” in soil nutrition, he said, “but no one is doing exactly the same as us.”

“Our product will not cover all the needs” in terms of soil nutrition, he added. Instead, it can provide up to 20% of the soil’s total nutrient needs when used in combination with traditional fertilizers or manures. It’s a flexible product that can be used with all kinds of soil management practices, Minton said: traditional, organic and regenerative.

Pivot Bio launched its first commercially available product in 2019, for corn, and is on its fourth release in three years. It has more than 125 patents (granted and pending), more than 300 employees and more than 800 representatives in the sales networks. Its products have been used on 1 million cultivated acres and its second-generation product “allows corn growers to replace up to 40 pounds per acre of synthetic nitrogen with a better nitrogen source,” Minton said.

Minton said the carbon emissions savings from replacing conventional fertilizers with Pivot Bio would be equivalent to planting 16 billion trees.

“We’ve seen fantastic demand emerge,” Minton said. Pivot Bio exhibited at this year’s Commodity Classic.

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Food shortage | Philstar.com https://imphos.org/food-shortage-philstar-com/ Sun, 24 Apr 2022 16:00:00 +0000 https://imphos.org/food-shortage-philstar-com/ A global food shortage is looming. Driven by soaring energy costs, supply disruptions and an escalating war between two of the world’s major breadbaskets, global food prices are at record highs, compounding security concerns food and making access to food more difficult. In Peru, farmers are protesting a fertilizer shortage that is expected to cut […]]]>

A global food shortage is looming. Driven by soaring energy costs, supply disruptions and an escalating war between two of the world’s major breadbaskets, global food prices are at record highs, compounding security concerns food and making access to food more difficult.

In Peru, farmers are protesting a fertilizer shortage that is expected to cut corn, potato and rice production by 40%. In Sri Lanka, people line up at ‘fair price’ government stores to buy essentials such as rice, dal, milk and flour, as prices in private grocery stores are three to four times higher. students. Meanwhile, Sri Lanka has chosen to default on its debt to pay for imports of essential goods like food, fuel and medicine.

Even fast-food chain McDonald’s has suffered from shipping delays and a shortage of potatoes used to make its famous fries. The company has been rationing its fries in countries including Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia since the end of 2021. Last week, McDonald’s Philippines announced that it would only offer regular-sized fries, halting sales of its large portions.

Food prices at their highest

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), food prices are now higher than during the Arab Spring uprising in the early 2010s. As a result, food prices are now at a new record high in nominal and real terms, surpassing even the prices reached during the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The basket of foodstuffs that make up the FAO Food Price Index show year-on-year price increases of +37 percent for cereals, +23.6 percent for dairy, + 56 percent for vegetable oils, +22.6 percent for sugar and + 19 percent for meat.

Indonesia bans palm oil exports

Last Friday, Indonesia – the world’s largest producer of palm oil – announced its intention to ban exports of the most widely used vegetable oil. Indonesia’s finance minister said it would hurt other countries, but it is necessary to ensure cooking oil in the domestic market remains plentiful and affordable. Palm oil is also used in cakes, chocolates, margarine and cookies, as well as in cosmetics, detergents and biofuels. This will aggravate the shortage of vegetable oil and further increase food prices.

Ukraine, the breadbasket of Europe

Even before the war, agricultural commodities rose due to supply chain disruptions and high energy costs. However, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has exacerbated pre-existing pressures on global food prices and supply. The FAO estimates that a third of Ukraine’s farmland will go unharvested or planted this year as the war escalates.

Ukraine is one of the main agricultural producers in the world and is known as the breadbasket of Europe. It accounts for 9% of world wheat, 12% of corn and barley and 50% of sunflower oil exports. Additionally, Ukraine’s ravaged farmland and damaged infrastructure such as highways, rail systems, bridges and ports will make exporting crops more difficult.

Record fertilizer prices

Another major reason for the food shortage is the record price of fertilizers. According to the US Department of Agriculture, fertilizers make up about 36% of a farmer’s operating costs for corn and 35% for wheat. Note that Russia and Belarus are the main fertilizer exporters, accounting for 37% of global potassium exports, 14% of phosphate exports and 16.5% of nitrogen exports. However, Western sanctions have made Russian and Belarusian fertilizers expensive and more difficult to import. As a result, the CRU Group Fertilizer Index recently hit a new all-time high at 390, well above the record high of 360 set in 2008 and quadrupling the level it was at the start of 2021.

Increased production, transport costs

Rising energy prices and transportation costs also lead to higher food prices. One-third of food costs are energy-related, while two-thirds of nitrogen fertilizer costs come from gas. Fuel also accounts for around 30% of airline spend and 50% of shipping company costs. The re-routing of trade to Europe as well as the high war risk premium have also increased the transport costs of cargo ships and tankers transiting the Black Sea.

Lockdowns in China

Bloomberg News reported that China’s oil demand will drop 20% in April, the most since the Wuhan lockdown. Containment in large cities reduces fuel consumption and decreases food demand. However, the closures disrupted China’s planting season as villages were sealed off under COVID restrictions. As a result, one-third of farmers in Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces, which account for 20% of China’s grain production, cannot obtain fertilizer and seeds stored in bunkers in Shanghai.

Rice production will plunge by 10%

Unlike wheat and maize, which have seen their supplies cut off from one of the world’s major breadbaskets, global rice supplies have been relatively stable. However, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has warned that harvests could fall by 10% next season as fertilizer supplies remain tight. Faced with high input prices, farmers will use less fertilizer to reduce costs, which will reduce future rice yields and further complicate the food supply shock in the global market.

Philequity Management is the fund manager of the leading mutual funds in the Philippines. To visit www.philequity.net to learn more about funds managed by Philequity or to view previous articles. For any inquiries or to send comments, please call (02) 8250-8700 or email [email protected]

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No need to vilify regenerative agriculture https://imphos.org/no-need-to-vilify-regenerative-agriculture/ Sun, 17 Apr 2022 19:30:00 +0000 https://imphos.org/no-need-to-vilify-regenerative-agriculture/ Several commentators have blamed Sri Lanka’s decision to go organic as the root cause of the current crisis. Additionally, this event was used to defame the regenerative agriculture movement. The Sri Lankan crisis has caused deep suffering in the neighboring country. Food and agriculture seem to be at the center of this crisis. Several commentators […]]]>

Several commentators have blamed Sri Lanka’s decision to go organic as the root cause of the current crisis. Additionally, this event was used to defame the regenerative agriculture movement.

The Sri Lankan crisis has caused deep suffering in the neighboring country. Food and agriculture seem to be at the center of this crisis. Several commentators have blamed Sri Lanka’s decision to go organic as the root cause of this crisis. Additionally, this event was used to defame the global regenerative agriculture movement.

Organic farming has also been a project of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government. It was during his tenure that the Paramparagat Kheti mission was launched. Did we also take the wrong step? But on a deeper level, was our traditional agricultural wisdom wrong? Could organic methods even work? I had a lot of questions, and the widespread slander against natural farming was not well received either. So I started meeting Indian experts to figure this one out.

First on the list was Ashok Gulati, an agricultural economist and professor at the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER), in New Delhi. It was an exceptionally hot April afternoon. I walked into the India Habitat Center office. It was a very neat place, with dark wood furniture.

The Green Revolution

After half an hour of intense discussions, I asked him about Sri Lanka: Is organic farming the real problem? Gulati took me back in time and said, “Norman Bourlog said you can’t feed more than 4 billion people without chemicals. Now that we are at 7.9 billion, how are we going to feed the world? Organic farming cannot feed the whole world. After the fall, before the green revolution, everything was organic anyway, and India too got caught up in the ship-to-mouth scenario.

“Organic is good for niche markets, but extending it to a whole country requires a proper assessment of demand and supply. In organic farming, yields of most crops are likely to be lower than those given for chemical fertilizers. If the country’s natural resource endowment cannot feed the entire population with organic produce, it should be prepared to import produce and food. That’s the problem with Sri Lanka. Now they don’t have enough foreign currency to import goods. Hence the problem,” he added.

At this point, I remember meeting a famous Sri Lankan novelist in March at the Jaipur Literature Festival (JLF). He too criticized the government’s decision to ban agrochemicals. Various reports pointed in the same direction.

Sri Lanka’s rendezvous with industrial agriculture has not always been pleasant. British-era plantations had destroyed much of the native biodiversity, and new crops like oil palm had further threatened the fragile ecosystem. Additionally, certain agricultural chemicals have also caused kidney failure in more than 40,000 people in the island nation.

Then I met the well-known environmentalist, Professor Vandana Shiva, given his position on the matter. She wore a dark blue sari with an embroidered white border. So, was organic fertilizer the main problem in Sri Lanka? She replied, “the crisis in Sri Lanka is a debt crisis, a financial crisis that has been made worse by the high costs of COVID.”

Biological agriculture

We talked for another hour about the various problems and the alleged propaganda against organic farming. But then our conversation took a serious turn. She explained that “the food crisis in Sri Lanka has deeper roots than a six-month ban on the importation of various agrochemicals. A short-term import ban policy is not a biological policy. We must look to Cuba for a full-fledged organic policy in the face of the shutdown of fuel and fertilizer supplies due to sanctions [imposed by the US].”

But what is the way out of this mess? She replied, “The solution to the Sri Lankan crisis is the restoration of democracy, including economic democracy, so that the people of Sri Lanka can choose development options that meet their basic needs instead of indebted more. A participatory policy for food sovereignty has become an imperative need for every country in times of climate change, wars, and economic and ecological collapse.

Of course, she believed organic was the way out of malnutrition, disease and climate change for the world. “Organic farming is a complete system. We must rejuvenate the soil, biodiversity, local communities, etc. But Sri Lanka should have planned this step carefully, keeping in mind all the factors to get the coveted organic label,” she added.

I had heard two sides on the issue, and it still wasn’t done. Then I spoke with India’s former agriculture secretary, Siraj Husain, to see where he saw the shortcomings. “I don’t think that Sri Lanka’s decision in May 2021 to stop importing chemical fertilizers is the only reason for the current economic difficulties in this country,” he said.

But was it an administrative failure? Has the machinery of government, including the bureaucracy, failed? “A country cannot become 100% organic in the short term. If all production is organic, the premium on organic products will collapse and farmers will end up with lower production. The current economic difficulties are also due to the nationalist policies of their president,” Siraj said.

What can India do? Siraj had a clear solution. “India can give wheat and rice like we did to Afghanistan a few years ago under the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. Also recently we donated wheat to Afghanistan and it was sent via Wagah through Pakistan. We can also come to the aid of Sri Lanka and help improve the problem.

For the last word, I met Sukhpal Singh, a professor at the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad. “The ban on chemical fertilizers was only imposed about eight months ago and was partially relaxed within a few months. Perhaps only one crop year was partly affected by this sudden change in policy which arguably should have been implemented more gradually, although there may be other constraints to this. Therefore, blaming all the blame for the Sri Lankan economic crisis on the shift in policy towards organic farming can only be a half-truth,” he said.

After hearing different points of view, I was not worried about the Indian biological mission. The Indian government seems to have a graduated plan for ecological restoration through regenerative agriculture. Besides environmental and health benefits, it also offloads growing fertilizer and fuel subsidies. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and other nitrogen-based fertilizers may soon be as valuable as gold. I was reassured that India will not follow Sri Lanka’s path. But of course I was certain that organic farming was not the main culprit. Bad random political decisions would be closer to the truth.

(The author is an independent agricultural policy analyst and the former Director, Policy and Outreach, National Seed Association of India)

– First position

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